By Zahid Ikram

 

Science in Quran : Medical Science in Quran

 

 

§              The Birth Of A Human Being

§              The Ears Are Active During Sleep

§              The Importance Of Movement In Sleep

§              Chest Contraction With Increasing Height

 

THE BIRTH OF A HUMAN BEING

سُوۡرَةُ الواقِعَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

هَـٰذَا نُزُلُهُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلدِّينِ (٥٦) نَحۡنُ خَلَقۡنَـٰكُمۡ فَلَوۡلَا تُصَدِّقُونَ (٥٧) أَفَرَءَيۡتُم مَّا تُمۡنُونَ (٥٨) ءَأَنتُمۡ تَخۡلُقُونَهُ ۥۤ أَمۡ نَحۡنُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُونَ (٥٩)

ہم نے تم کو پیدا کیا ہے تو تم کیوں سچ نہیں سمجھتے؟ (۵۷) دیکھو تو کہ جس  کو تم  ڈالتے ہو (۵۸) کیا تم اس کو بناتے ہو یا ہم بناتے ہیں؟ (۵۹)

It is We Who have created you. Why, then, do you not accept the truth? Have you ever considered that [seed] which you emit? Is it you who create it? Or are We the Creator? (Quran, 56:57-59)

The creation of human being is emphasized in many verses. Some of the information within these verses is so detailed that it was impossible for anyone living in the 7th century to have known it. Examples of these are as follows:

o        Man is created from a sperm not from the entire semen.

o        It is the male that determines the gender of the baby.

o        The human embryo sticks to the mother's uterus like a leech.

o        The embryo develops in three dark regions in the uterus.

The discovery of these facts could only become possible by the technology attained in the 20th century.

Now, let us examine:

A Drop of Semen

In the picture you see semen ejected into the uterus. Only very few sperms out of 250 million sperms (The male reproductive cell; "a sperm is mostly a nucleus surrounded by little other cellular material") the male gamete (A mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes) emitted from the male can make it to the ovum (The female reproductive cell; the female gamete). The sperm that will fertilize the egg is the only one out of a thousand sperms that have managed to survive.

The fact that man is made not from the entire semen—but only a small part of it—is related in the Quran with the expression, "a drop of ejected semen."

Sperm undertake a journey into the mother's body until they reach the ovum. Only a thousand out of 250 million sperm succeed in reaching the ovum. At the end of this five-minute race, the ovum, half the size of a grain of salt, will let only one of the sperms in. That is, the substance of man is not the whole semen, but only a small part of it. This is explained in the Surat al-Qiyama as follows:

سُوۡرَةُ القِیَامَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

(٣٥) أَيَحۡسَبُ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ أَن يُتۡرَكَ سُدًى (٣٦) أَلَمۡ يَكُ نُطۡفَةً۬ مِّن مَّنِىٍّ۬ يُمۡنَىٰ (٣٧) ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً۬ فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّىٰ (٣٨) فَجَعَلَ مِنۡهُ ٱلزَّوۡجَيۡنِ ٱلذَّكَرَ وَٱلۡأُنثَىٰٓ (٣٩)

کیا وہ منی کا جو رحم میں ڈالی جاتی ہے ایک قطرہ نہ تھا؟ (۳۷) پھر لوتھڑا ہوا پھر (خدا نے) اس کو بنایا پھر (اس کے اعضا کو) درست کیا (۳۸) پھر اس کی دو قسمیں بنائیں مرد اور عورت (۳۹)

Does man reckon he will be left uncontrolled [without purpose]? Was he not once a drop of ejected semen? Then he became a clot; then (Allah) shaped and fashioned (38) And made of him a pair, the male and female. (39) (Quran, 75:36-39)

As mentioned in Quran that man is made not from the entire semen, but only a small part of it. This fact only discovered by modern science is evidence that the Quran is the Word of Allah.

The Mixture in the Semen

In the Quran, it is said that male or female are created out of "a drop of semen which has been ejected." Until fairly recently, it was believed that a baby's sex was determined by the mother's cells. Science only discovered this information given in the Quran in the 20th century. This and many other similar details about the creation of man were stated in the Quran centuries ago.

 

The fluid referred to as semen (The thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract), which contains the sperm, does not consist of sperm alone. On the contrary, it is made up of a mixture of different fluids. Seminal fluid is a collection of substances secreted from the testicles, the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland and glands linked to the urinary tract. A detailed analysis of this fluid shows that it consists of a great many separate substances, such as citric acid, prostaglandin, flavin, ascorbic acid, ergothioneine, cholesterol, phospholipids, fibrinolysin, zinc, phosphatase acid, phosphase, hyaluronidase and sperm. These fluids exercise different functions, such as containing the sugar necessary for providing energy for the sperm, neutralizing the acids at the entrance of the uterus, and providing a slippery substance for the easy movement of the sperm.

When semen is mentioned in the Quran, this fact, which was discovered by modern science, is also referred to, and semen is defined as a mixed fluid:

سُوۡرَةُ دهر / الإنسَان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

هَلۡ أَتَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنِ حِينٌ۬ مِّنَ ٱلدَّهۡرِ لَمۡ يَكُن شَيۡـًٔ۬ا مَّذۡكُورًا (١) إِنَّا خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن نُّطۡفَةٍ أَمۡشَاجٍ۬ نَّبۡتَلِيهِ فَجَعَلۡنَـٰهُ سَمِيعَۢا بَصِيرًا (٢)

بےشک انسان پر زمانے میں ایک ایسا وقت بھی آچکا ہے کہ وہ کوئی چیز قابل ذکر نہ تھی (۱) ہم نے انسان کو نطفہٴ مخلوط سے پیدا کیا تاکہ اسے آزمائیں تو ہم نے اس کو سنتا دیکھتا بنایا (۲)

Hath there come upon man (ever) any period of time in which he was a thing unremembered? (1) We created man from a mingled drop to test him, and We made him hearing and seeing. (2) (Quran, 76:1-2)

In other verses, semen is again referred to as a mixture, and it is stressed that man is created from the "extract" of this mixture:

سُوۡرَةُ السَّجدَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱلَّذِىٓ أَحۡسَنَ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقَهُ ۥ‌ۖ وَبَدَأَ خَلۡقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنِ مِن طِينٍ۬ (٧) ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسۡلَهُ ۥ مِن سُلَـٰلَةٍ۬ مِّن مَّآءٍ۬ مَّهِينٍ۬ (٨) ثُمَّ سَوَّٮٰهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِۦ‌ۖ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلسَّمۡعَ وَٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرَ وَٱلۡأَفۡـِٔدَةَ‌ۚ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تَشۡڪُرُونَ (٩)

جس نے ہر چیز کو بہت اچھی طرح بنایا (یعنی) اس کو پیدا کیا۔ اور انسان کی پیدائش کو مٹی سے شروع کیا (۷) پھر اس کی نسل خلاصے سے (یعنی) حقیر پانی سے پیدا کی (۸) پھر اُس کو درست کیا پھر اس میں اپنی( طرف سے) روح پھونکی اور تمہارے کان اور آنکھیں اور دل بنائے مگر تم بہت کم شکر کرتے ہو (۹)

He Who has created all things in the best possible way. He commenced the creation of man from clay. (7) Then He made his progeny from an extract of discarded fluid. (8)  Then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His Spirit; and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks give ye! (9) (Quran, 32:7-9)

The Arabic word "sulala," translated as "extract," means the essential or best part of something. By either meaning, it refers to "part of a whole." This shows that the Quran is the Word of Allah, Who knows the creation of man to its minute details.

The Sex of the Child

Not long ago, it was thought that a baby's gender was determined by the mother's cells. Or at least, it was believed that the gender was determined by the male and female cells together. But, we are given different information in the Quran, where it is stated that male or female is created out of "a drop of sperm which has been ejected."

سُوۡرَةُ النّجْم
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَأَنَّهُ ۥ خَلَقَ ٱلزَّوۡجَيۡنِ ٱلذَّكَرَ وَٱلۡأُنثَىٰ (٤٥) مِن نُّطۡفَةٍ إِذَا تُمۡنَىٰ (٤٦)

اور یہ کہ وہی نر اور مادہ دو قسم  پیدا کرتا ہے (۴۵) نطفے سے جو (رحم میں) ڈالا جاتا ہے (۴۶)

He has created both sexes, male and female from a drop of semen which has been ejected. (Quran, 53:45-46)

سُوۡرَةُ القِیَامَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

أَلَمۡ يَكُ نُطۡفَةً۬ مِّن مَّنِىٍّ۬ يُمۡنَىٰ (٣٧) ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً۬ فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّىٰ (٣٨) فَجَعَلَ مِنۡهُ ٱلزَّوۡجَيۡنِ ٱلذَّكَرَ وَٱلۡأُنثَىٰٓ (٣٩)

کیا وہ منی کا جو رحم میں ڈالی جاتی ہے ایک قطرہ نہ تھا؟ (۳۷) پھر لوتھڑا ہوا پھر (خدا نے) اس کو بنایا پھر (اس کے اعضا کو) درست کیا (۳۸) پھر اس کی دو قسمیں بنائیں مرد اور عورت (۳۹)

Was he not a drop of ejaculated sperm, then a blood-clot which He created and shaped, making from it both sexes, male and female? (Quran, 75:37-39)

The developing disciplines of genetics and molecular biology (The branch of biology that studies the structure and activity of macromolecules essential to life and especially with their genetic role) have scientifically validated the accuracy of this information given by the Quran. It is now understood that gender is determined by the sperm cells from the male, and that the female has no role in this process.

The Y chromosome carries characteristics of masculinity, while the X chromosome carries those of femininity. In the mother's egg, there is only the X chromosome, which determines female characteristics. In the semen from the father, there are sperms that include either X or Y chromosomes. Therefore, the sex of the baby depends on whether the sperm fertilizing the egg contains an X or Y chromosome. In other words, as stated in the verse, the factor determining the gender of the baby is the semen, which comes from the father. This knowledge, which could not have been known at the time when the Quran was revealed, is evidence to the fact that the Quran is the Word of Allah.

Chromosomes (A threadlike strand of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid - a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information) in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order "humans have 22 chromosome pairs plus two sex chromosomes") are the main elements in determining sex.

Two of the 46 chromosomes that determine the structure of a human being are identified as the sex chromosomes. These two chromosomes are called "XY" in males and “XX” in females, because the shapes of the chromosomes resemble these letters. The Y chromosome carries the genes that code for masculinity, while the X chromosome carries the genes that code for femininity.

The formation of a new human being begins with the cross combination of one of these chromosomes, which exist in males and females in pairs. In females, both components of the sex cell, this divides into two during ovulation (The expulsion of an ovum from the ovary usually midway in the menstrual cycle), carry X chromosomes. The sex cell of a male, on the other hand, produces two different kinds of sperm, one that contains X chromosomes and the other Y chromosomes. If an X chromosome from the female unites with a sperm that contains an X chromosome, then the baby is female. If it unites with the sperm that contains a Y chromosome, the baby is male.

In other words, a baby's sex is determined by which chromosome from the male unites with the female's ovum.

None of this was known until the discovery of genes in the 20th century. Indeed, in many cultures, it was believed that a baby's sex was determined by the female. That was why women were blamed when they gave birth to girls.

Fourteen centuries before human genes were discovered, however, the Quran revealed information that denies this superstition, and referred to the origin of sex lying not with women, but with the semen deriving from men.

The “Alaq" Clinging to the Uterus

In the first phase of its development, the baby in the mother's womb is in the form of a zygote (fertilized ovum), which clings (holds close/tight) to the uterus in order to take nourishment from the mother's blood. In the picture to the left is a zygote, which looks like a piece of flesh. This formation, which has been discovered by modern embryology, was miraculously stated in the Quran 14 centuries ago with the word "alaq," which means "a thing that clings to some place" and is used to describe leeches that cling to a body to suck blood.

If we continue to examine the facts announced to us in the Quran, about the formation of human beings, we again encounter some very important scientific truth.

When the sperm of the male unites with the ovum of the female, the essence of the baby to be born is formed. This single cell, known as a "zygote" in biology, will instantly begin reproducing by dividing, and eventually become a "piece of flesh," called an embryo. This, of course, can only be seen by human beings with the aid of a microscope.

The embryo, however, does not spend its developmental period in a void. It clings to the uterus, with something like roots that is firmly fixed to the earth by its tendrils. Through this bond, the embryo can obtain the substances essential to its development from the mother's body. Keith L. Moore, et al., Human Development as Described in the Qur'an and Sunnah (Makkah: Commission on Scientific Signs of the Qur'an and Sunnah, 1992), 36.

Here, an important miracle of the Quran is revealed. While referring to the embryo developing in the mother's womb, Allah uses the word "alaq" in the Quran:

سُوۡرَةُ العَلق
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱقۡرَأۡ بِٱسۡمِ رَبِّكَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ (١) خَلَقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِنۡ عَلَقٍ (٢) ٱقۡرَأۡ وَرَبُّكَ ٱلۡأَكۡرَمُ (٣)

اپنے پروردگار کا نام لے کر پڑھو جس نے پیدا کیا (۱) جس نے انسان کو خون کی پھٹکی سے بنایا (۲) پڑھو اور تمہارا پروردگار بڑا کریم ہے (۳)

Recite: In the name of your Lord Who created man from alaq. Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous. (Quran, 96:1-3)

The meaning of the word "alaq" in Arabic is "a thing that clings to some place." The word is literally used to describe leeches that cling to a body to suck blood.

Certainly, the use of such a specific word for the embryo developing in the mother's womb, proves once again that the Qur'an is the Word of Allah, the Lord of all the Worlds.

The Wrapping of Muscles over the Bones

Another important information provided in the verses of the Quran is the developmental stages of a human developing fetus in the mother's womb. It is stated in these verses that in the mother's womb, the bones develop first, and then the muscles form which wrap around them.

سُوۡرَةُ المؤمنون
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ثُمَّ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلنُّطۡفَةَ عَلَقَةً۬ فَخَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡعَلَقَةَ مُضۡغَةً۬ فَخَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡمُضۡغَةَ عِظَـٰمً۬ا فَكَسَوۡنَا ٱلۡعِظَـٰمَ لَحۡمً۬ا ثُمَّ أَنشَأۡنَـٰهُ خَلۡقًا ءَاخَرَ‌ۚ فَتَبَارَكَ ٱللَّهُ أَحۡسَنُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقِينَ (١٤)

پھر نطفے کا لوتھڑا بنایا۔ پھر لوتھڑے کی بوٹی بنائی پھر بوٹی کی ہڈیاں بنائیں پھر ہڈیوں پر گوشت (پوست) چڑھایا۔ پھر اس کو نئی صورت میں بنا دیا۔ تو خدا جو سب سے بہتر بنانے والا بڑا بابرکت ہے (۱۴)

[We] then formed the drop into a clot and formed the clot into a lump and formed the lump into bones and clothed the bones in flesh; and then brought him into being as another creature. Blessed be Allah, the Best of Creators! (Quran, 23:14)

The bones of the baby completing its development in the mother's womb are clothed with flesh during one particular stage exactly as stated in the Quran.

Embryology is the branch of science that studies the development of the embryo in the mother's womb. Until very recently, embryologists assumed that the bones and muscles in an embryo developed at the same time. Yet, advanced microscopic research conducted by virtue of new technological developments has revealed that the revelation of the Quran is word for word correct.

These observations at the microscopic level showed that the development inside the mother's womb takes place in just the way it is described in these verses. First, the cartilage tissue of the embryo ossifies. Then, muscular cells that are selected from amongst the tissue around the bones come together and wrap around the bones.

This event is described in a scientific publication titled Developing Human in the following words:

… [T]he shape of the skeleton determines the general appearance of the embryo in the bones stage during the 7th week; muscles do not develop at the same time but their development follows soon after. The muscles take their positions around the bones throughout the body and therefore clothe the bones. Thus, the muscles take their well known forms and structures… The stage of clothing with muscle occurs during the 8th week… Keith L. Moore, Developing Human, 3rd ed. (W. B. Saunders Company: 1982), 364a

In short, developmental stages of man, as described in the Quran, are in perfect harmony with the findings of modern embryology.

 Many stages of a baby's development in the mother's womb are related in the Quran. As described in Surat al-Muminun 14, the cartilage of the embryo in the mother's womb ossifies first. Then these bones are covered with muscle cells. Allah describes this development with the verse: "… [We then] formed the lump into bones and clothed the bones in flesh."

 

 

Three Dark Stages of the Baby in the Womb

In the Quran, it is related that man is created through a three-stage process in the mother's womb.

سُوۡرَةُ الزُّمَر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنۡہَا زَوۡجَهَا وَأَنزَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡأَنۡعَـٰمِ ثَمَـٰنِيَةَ أَزۡوَٲجٍ۬‌ۚ يَخۡلُقُكُمۡ فِى بُطُونِ أُمَّهَـٰتِڪُمۡ خَلۡقً۬ا مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ خَلۡقٍ۬ فِى ظُلُمَـٰتٍ۬ ثَلَـٰثٍ۬‌ۚ ذَٲلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّكُمۡ لَهُ ٱلۡمُلۡكُ‌ۖ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُصۡرَفُونَ (٦)

اسی نے تم کو ایک شخص سے پیدا کیا پھر اس سے اس کا جوڑا بنایا اور اسی نے تمہارے لئے چار پایوں میں سے آٹھ جوڑے بنائے۔ وہی تم کو تمہاری ماؤں کے پیٹ میں (پہلے) ایک طرح پھر دوسری طرح تین اندھیروں میں بناتا ہے۔ یہی خدا تمہارا پروردگار ہے اسی کی بادشاہی ہے۔ اس کے سوا کوئی معبود نہیں پھر تم کہاں پھرے جاتے ہو؟ (۶)

... He creates you stage by stage in your mothers' wombs in threefold darkness. That is Allah, your Lord. Sovereignty is His. There is no god but Him. So what has made you deviate? (Quran, 39:6)

The expression "fee thulumatin thalathin," translated into English as "a threefold darkness," indicates three dark regions involved during the development of the embryo. These are:

1.     The darkness of the abdomen

2.     The darkness of the womb

3.     The darkness of the placenta

As we have seen, modern biology has revealed that the embryological development of the baby takes place in the manner revealed in the verse, in three dark regions. Moreover, advances in the science of embryology show that these regions consist of three layers each.


In Surat az-Zumar 6, it is pointed out that man is created in the mother's womb in three distinct regions. Indeed, modern embryology has revealed that the baby's embryological development takes place in three distinct regions in the mother's womb.

The lateral abdominal wall comprises three layers: the external oblique, the internal oblique, and transverses abdominis muscles. http://anatomy.med.unsw.edu.au/cbl/embryo/Notes/git4.htm and www.yoursurgery.com/ProcedureDetails.cfm?BR=1&Proc=74

Similarly, the wall of the womb also consists of three layers: the epimetrium, the myometrium and the endometrium. http://virtual.yosemite.cc.ca.us/uyeshiros/AP50/Repro.htm

Similarly again, the placenta surrounding the embryo also consists of three layers: the amnion (the internal membrane around the fetus), the chorion (the middle amnion layer) and the decidua (outer amnion layer.) Kazi, 130 Evident Miracles in the Quran, 84

It is also pointed out in this verse that a human being is created in the mother's womb in three distinct stages.

Indeed, modern biology has also revealed that the baby's embryological development takes place in three distinct regions in the mother's womb. Today, in all the embryology textbooks studied in departments of medicine, this subject is taken as an element of basic knowledge. For instance, in Basic Human Embryology, a fundamental reference text in the field of embryology, this fact is stated as follows:

The life in the uterus has three stages: pre-embryonic; first two and a half weeks, embryonic; until the end of the eight week, and fetal; from the eight week to labor. Williams P., Basic Human Embryology, 3rd ed., 1984, 64

These phases refer to the different developmental stages of a baby. In brief, the main characteristics of these developmental stages are as follows:

o        Pre-embryonic Stage
In this first phase, the zygote grows by division, and when it becomes a cell cluster, it buries itself in the wall of the uterus. While they continue growing, the cells organize themselves in three layers.

o        Embryonic Stage
The second phase lasts for five and a half weeks, during which the baby is referred to as an "embryo." During this stage, the basic organs and systems of the body start to appear from the cell layers.

o        Foetal Stage
From this stage onward, the embryo is called a "fetus." This phase begins at the eighth week of gestation, and lasts until the moment of birth. The distinctive characteristic of this stage is that the fetus looks much like a human being, with its face, hands and feet. Although it is only 3 cm long initially, all of its organs have become apparent. This phase lasts for about 30 weeks, and development continues until the week of delivery.

Information on the development in the mother's womb became available only after observations with modern devices. Yet, just like many other scientific facts, in a miraculous way, Allah draws our attention to these items of information in the verses of the Quran. The fact that such detailed and accurate information was given in the Quran at a time when people had scarce information on medical matters is clear evidence that the Quran is the Word of Allah. http://www.miraclesofthequran.com/scientific_57.html

 

 

THE EARS ARE ACTIVE DURING SLEEP

 

سُوۡرَةُ الکهف
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَتَحۡسَبُہُمۡ أَيۡقَاظً۬ا وَهُمۡ رُقُودٌ۬‌ۚ وَنُقَلِّبُهُمۡ ذَاتَ ٱلۡيَمِينِ وَذَاتَ ٱلشِّمَالِ‌ۖ وَكَلۡبُهُم بَـٰسِطٌ۬ ذِرَاعَيۡهِ بِٱلۡوَصِيدِ‌ۚ لَوِ ٱطَّلَعۡتَ عَلَيۡہِمۡ لَوَلَّيۡتَ مِنۡهُمۡ فِرَارً۬ا وَلَمُلِئۡتَ مِنۡہُمۡ رُعۡبً۬ا (١٨)

So We sealed their ears [with sleep] in the cave for a number of years. (Quran, 18:11)

 

تو ہم نے غار میں کئی سال تک ان کے کانوں پر (نیند کا) پردہ ڈالے (یعنی ان کو سلائے) رکھا (۱۱)

 

The original Arabic of the phrase "We sealed their ears" in the Quran is the verb daraba. This bears the metaphorical meaning of "We have made them sleep." Used in reference to the ears, daraba means "preventing the ears from hearing." The fact that only the sense of hearing is mentioned here is very significant.

According to recent scientific discoveries, the ear is the only sensory organ active while a person is sleeping. This is why we need an alarm clock to wake up. The wisdom of the phrase "We sealed their ears" is, in all probability, that Allah closed the hearing of the young people in question, for which reason they remained asleep for many years.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF MOVEMENT IN SLEEP

سُوۡرَةُ الکهف
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَتَحۡسَبُہُمۡ أَيۡقَاظً۬ا وَهُمۡ رُقُودٌ۬‌ۚ وَنُقَلِّبُهُمۡ ذَاتَ ٱلۡيَمِينِ وَذَاتَ ٱلشِّمَالِ‌ۖ وَكَلۡبُهُم بَـٰسِطٌ۬ ذِرَاعَيۡهِ بِٱلۡوَصِيدِ‌ۚ لَوِ ٱطَّلَعۡتَ عَلَيۡہِمۡ لَوَلَّيۡتَ مِنۡهُمۡ فِرَارً۬ا وَلَمُلِئۡتَ مِنۡہُمۡ رُعۡبً۬ا (١٨)

You would have supposed them to be awake, whereas in fact they were asleep. We moved them to the right and to the left, and, at the entrance, their dog stretched out its paws. If you had looked down and seen them, you would have turned from them and run, and have been filled with terror at the sight of them. (Quran, 18:18)

اور تم ان کو خیال کرو کہ جاگ رہے ہیں حالانکہ وہ سوتے ہیں۔ اور ہم ان کو دائیں اور بائیں کروٹ بدلاتے تھے۔ اور ان کا کتا چوکھٹ پر دونوں ہاتھ پھیلائے ہوئے تھا۔ اگر تم ان کو جھانک کر دیکھتے تو پیٹھ پھیر کر بھاگ جاتے اور ان سے دہشت میں آجاتے (۱۸)

The above verse refers to the People of the Cave, who remained asleep for hundreds of years. In addition, Allah also reveals that He moved their bodies to the left and right. The wisdom of this was only discovered in recent times.

People who remain lying down in the same position for long period of time encounter serious health problems, such as circulation difficulties, sores, and blood clotting in that part of the body in contact with the surface on which they lie.

The resulting sores are known as "bed sores" or "pressure sores." Due to the constant pressure on one part of the body when one is not moving for a long period of time, the blood vessels become constricted and can close altogether. As a result, the oxygen and other nutrients carried by the blood fail to reach the skin, and the skin begins to die. This leads to the appearance of sores on the body. Unless these sores are treated, fat and muscles can also die.

These sores, which form under the skin or tissue, can assume serious dimensions unless treated. If they become infected, they can even lead to death. The healthiest thing to do, therefore, is to change the position of the body every 15 minutes in order to reduce this pressure. Patients who cannot move themselves therefore receive special care and are moved every 2 hours by other people. The fact that these medical facts, only discovered in the last century, are referred to in the Quran is yet another of its miracles.

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CHEST CONTRACTION WITH INCREASING HEIGHT

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنعَام
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

فَمَن يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ أَن يَهۡدِيَهُ ۥ يَشۡرَحۡ صَدۡرَهُ ۥ لِلۡإِسۡلَـٰمِ‌ۖ وَمَن يُرِدۡ أَن يُضِلَّهُ ۥ يَجۡعَلۡ صَدۡرَهُ ۥ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجً۬ا ڪَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ‌ۚ ڪَذَٲلِكَ يَجۡعَلُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلرِّجۡسَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ (١٢٥)

When Allah desires to guide someone, He expands his breast to Islam. When He desires to misguide someone, He makes his breast narrow and constricted as if he were climbing up into the sky. That is how Allah defiles those who have no faith. (Qur'an, 6:125)

تو جس شخص کو خدا چاہتا ہے کہ ہدایت بخشے اس کا سینہ اسلام کے لیے کھول دیتا ہے اور جسے چاہتا ہے کہ گمراہ کرے اس کا سینہ تنگ اور گھٹا ہوا کر دیتا ہے گویا وہ آسمان پر چڑھ رہا ہے اس طرح خدا ان لوگوں پر جو ایمان نہیں لاتے عذاب بھیجتا ہے (۱۲۵)

Human beings need oxygen and air pressure in order to live. Breathing is made possible by the oxygen in the atmosphere reaching the air sacs in our lungs. As elevation rises, however, atmospheric pressure goes down as the atmosphere becomes thinner. Therefore, the amount of oxygen entering the blood stream declines and it becomes harder to breathe. As the air sacs grow narrow and contract, we feel as if we cannot breathe.

 

If the amount of oxygen in the blood is less than the body needs, several symptoms emerge: extreme fatigue, headaches, dizziness, nausea, and loss of judgment. When a certain height is reached, it finally becomes impossible for a human being to breathe at all. This is why we need oxygen bottles and special clothing in order to survive at such elevations.

Someone at 5,000-7,500 meters (16,500-24,500 feet) above sea-level may faint and go into a coma because of breathing difficulties. That explains the presence of oxygen equipment in airplanes. There are also special systems that regulate air pressure when planes fly at 9,000-10,000 meters (29,500-33,000 feet) above sea-level.

Anoxia occurs when oxygen fails to reach the tissues. This oxygen deficiency occurs at heights of 3,000-4,500 meters (10,000-15,000 feet). Some people even lose consciousness at such elevations, but can be saved by immediate oxygen treatment.

In the comparison made in the verse above, this physical truth, the changes that take place in the chest with increasing height, is indicated.

 

 

REDUCED MOVEMENT AT NIGHT

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنعَام
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

فَالِقُ ٱلۡإِصۡبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ ٱلَّيۡلَ سَكَنً۬ا وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ حُسۡبَانً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ (٩٦)

 

He splits the sky at dawn, and appoints the night as a time of stillness and the Sun and Moon as a means of reckoning. (Qur'an, 6:96)

وہی (رات کے اندھیرے سے) صبح کی روشنی پھاڑ نکالتا ہے اور اسی نے رات کو (موجب) آرام (ٹھہرایا) اور سورج اور چاند کو (ذرائع) شمار بنایا ہے۔ یہ خدا کے (مقرر کئے ہوئے) اندازے ہیں جو غالب (اور) علم والا ہے (۹۶)

The Arabic word sakanan, which appears in the original of the above verse, means "repose, rest, time to withdraw to rest, time for a break." As indicated by Allah, night is the time when human beings rest.

سُوۡرَةُ بنیٓ اسرآئیل / الإسرَاء
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَجَعَلۡنَا ٱلَّيۡلَ وَٱلنَّہَارَ ءَايَتَيۡنِ‌ۖ فَمَحَوۡنَآ ءَايَةَ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَجَعَلۡنَآ ءَايَةَ ٱلنَّہَارِ مُبۡصِرَةً۬ لِّتَبۡتَغُواْ فَضۡلاً۬ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ وَلِتَعۡلَمُواْ عَدَدَ ٱلسِّنِينَ وَٱلۡحِسَابَ‌ۚ وَڪُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬ فَصَّلۡنَـٰهُ تَفۡصِيلاً۬ (١٢)

Al-Isra 17:12
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

And We appoint the night and the day two portents. Then We effact the portent of the night, and We make the portent of the day sight-giving, that ye may seek bounty from your Lord, and that ye may know the computation of the years, and the reckoning; and everything have We expounded with a clear expounding. (12)

 

سورة بنیٓ اسرآئیل / الإسرَاء
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اور ہم نے دن اور رات کو دو نشانیاں بنایا ہے رات کی نشانی کو تاریک بنایا اور دن کی نشانی کو روشن۔ تاکہ تم اپنے پروردگار کا فضل (یعنی) روزی تلاش کرو اور برسوں کا شمار اور حساب جانو۔ اور ہم نے ہر چیز کو (بخوبی) تفصیل کردی ہے (۱۲)

 

The hormone melatonin, secreted at night, prepares the body for sleep by slowing down peoples' physical movements, making them sleepy and tired, and functioning as a natural tranquillizer that eases their minds.

Closed eyeDuring sleep, heartbeat and respiration rhythms slow down and blood pressure falls. In the morning, the production of the hormones stops and the body is stimulated to awaken. At the same time, sleep allows the body's muscles and tissues to repair themselves and the body to replace old or dead cells. Since energy expenditure is reduced during sleep, the body stores energy throughout the night. Several chemicals vital for the immune system and growth hormones are also secreted during sleep.

In the event that people fail to get enough sleep, therefore, the immune system is immediately affected and the body becomes more susceptible to sickness. If people are unable to sleep for two nights, they will find it harder to concentrate and their error levels will rise. If they are deprived of sleep for three nights, they will begin to hallucinate and be unable to think logically.

We spend a third of our lives sleeping?

Napoleon, Florence Nightingale and Margaret Thatcher got by on four hours a night.Thomas Edison claimed it was waste of time.

Why do we sleep?

This is a question that has baffled scientists for centuries and the answer is, no one is really sure. Some believe that sleep gives the body a chance to recuperate from the day's activities but in reality, the amount of energy saved by sleeping for even eight hours is miniscule - about 50 K. Cal, the same amount of energy in a piece of toast.

We have to sleep because it is essential to maintaining normal levels of cognitive skills such as speech, memory, innovative and flexible thinking. In other words, sleep plays a significant role in brain development.

What would happen if we didn't sleep?

A good way to understand the role of sleep is to look at what would happen if we didn't sleep. Lack of sleep has serious effects on our brain's ability to function. If you've ever pulled an all-nighter, you'll be familiar with the following after-effects: grumpiness, grogginess, irritability and forgetfulness. After just one night without sleep, concentration becomes more difficult and attention span shortens considerably.

With continued lack of sufficient sleep, the part of the brain that controls language, memory, planning and sense of time is severely affected, practically shutting down. In fact, 17 hours of sustained wakefulness leads to a decrease in performance equivalent to a blood alcohol level of 0.05% (two glasses of wine). This is the legal drink driving limit in the UK.

Sleep-deprived individuals often have difficulty in responding to rapidly changing situations and making rational judgments. In real life situations, the consequences are grave and lack of sleep is said to have been be a contributory factor to a number of international disasters such as Exxon Valdez, Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and the Challenger shuttle explosion.

Sleep deprivation not only has a major impact on cognitive functioning but also on emotional and physical health. Disorders such as sleep apnoea which result in excessive daytime sleepiness have been linked to stress and high blood pressure. Research has also suggested that sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity because chemicals and hormones that play a key role in controlling appetite and weight gain are released during sleep.

What happens when we sleep?

What happens every time we get a bit of shut eye? Sleep occurs in a recurring cycle of 90 to 110 minutes and is divided into two categories: non-REM (which is further split into four stages) and REM sleep.

Stage one: Light Sleep: Non-REM sleep

During the first stage of sleep, we're half awake and half asleep. Our muscle activity slows down and slight twitching may occur. This is a period of light sleep, meaning we can be awakened easily at this stage.

Stage two: True Sleep

Within ten minutes of light sleep, we enter stage two, which lasts around 20 minutes. The breathing pattern and heart rate start to slow down. This period accounts for the largest part of human sleep.

Stages three and four: Deep Sleep

During stage three, the brain begins to produce delta waves, a type of wave that is large (high amplitude) and slow (low frequency). Breathing and heart rate are at their lowest levels.

Stage four is characterized by rhythmic breathing and limited muscle activity. If we are awakened during deep sleep we do not adjust immediately and often feel groggy and disoriented for several minutes after waking up. Some children experience bed-wetting, night terrors, or sleepwalking during this stage.

REM sleep

The first rapid eye movement (REM) period usually begins about 70 to 90 minutes after we fall asleep. We have around three to five REM episodes a night.

Although we are not conscious, the brain is very active - often more so than when we are awake. This is the period when most dreams occur. Our eyes dart around (hence the name), our breathing rate and blood pressure rise. However, our bodies are effectively paralysed, said to be nature's way of preventing us from acting out our dreams.

After REM sleep, the whole cycle begins again.

Night is as much a time for rest for other living things as it is for human beings. This situation, referred to by Allah in the verse "the night as a time of stillness," indicates a fact that cannot be observed by the naked eye: Many activities that take place during the day slow down and rest during the night. In plants, for instance, perspiration in leaves and photosynthesis begin to rise when the sun rises. In the afternoon, the situation is reversed. In other words, photosynthesis slows down and respiration increases, because perspiration is accelerated as the temperature rises. At night time, as the temperature falls, perspiration slows down and the plant rests. Most plants would die if just one night failed to take place. From that point of view, night means rest and reinvigoration for plants, just as it does for human beings.

Movement at the molecular level also declines at night. The radiation emitted by the Sun during the day activates the atoms and molecules in Earth's atmosphere and causes them to achieve higher energy levels. As darkness falls, the atoms and molecules fall to lower energy levels and start to give off radiation.

These facts are, in all probability, indicated Surat al-An'am 96 and reveal yet another of the Quran’s countless miracles. (Allah knows best.)

 

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04 Al-Nisa 56

جن لوگوں نے ہماری آیتوں سے کفر کیا ان کو ہم عنقریب آگ میں داخل کریں گے جب ان کی کھالیں گل (اور جل) جائیں گی تو ہم اور کھالیں بدل دیں گے تاکہ (ہمیشہ) عذاب (کا مزہ چکھتے) رہیں بےشک خدا غالب حکمت والا ہے (۵۶)

 

33:4

سورة الاٴحزَاب
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے


خدا نے کسی آدمی کے پہلو میں دو دل نہیں بنائے

90:8-9

سُوۡرَةُ البَلَد
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

بھلا ہم نےاس کو دو آنکھیں نہیں دیں؟ (۸) اور زبان اور دو ہونٹ (نہیں دیئے) (۹)

 

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ یسٓ
بِسمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

 

سُبۡحَـٰنَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلۡأَزۡوَٲجَ ڪُلَّهَا مِمَّا تُنۢبِتُ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ وَمِنۡ أَنفُسِهِمۡ وَمِمَّا لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ (٣٦)

 

Ya-Seen 36:36
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Glory be to Him Who created all the sexual pairs, of that which the earth groweth, and of themselves, and of that which they know not! (36)

 

سورة یسٓ
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

وہ خدا پاک ہے جس نے زمین کی نباتات کے اور خود ان کے اور جن چیزوں کی ان کو خبر نہیں سب کے جوڑے بنائے (۳۶)