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Explore Pakistan | Cities | Kalat  قلات

History | Geography | Demographics | Rulers of Kalat | Population

Kalat or Qalat (Urdu: قلات) is a district in Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of 26 in that province, and encompasses an area of 6,621 km˛. The population of the district is estimated to be over 400,000 in 2005. The district is governed from the city of Kalat.

Kalat was notified as a district on February 3, 1954. At that time Khuzdar and Mastung districts were sub-divisions of Kalat (which then also included Bolan, Jhal Magsi and Naseerabad (Dera Murad Jamali); these were separated in 1965 as Kachhi District). Khuzdar became a separate district by notification of 1 March 1974, while Mastung was announced to be separate district on 18 February 1992. The district draws its name from the ancient city of Kalat. The old name of the district headquarters was Kahan. The current district consists of two sub-divisions, i.e. Kalat and Surab, five tehsils: Kalat Mangochar, Johan, Gazgz, and Surab, 81 patwar circles and 614 mauza (villages).

The climate is arid, hot in summer and cold in winter, with most rainfall occurring in the winter. The terrain is mountainous with several valleys and one main river, the Moro. The main economic activities are agriculture and livestock farming

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The state of Kalat was founded in 1638. The territories controlled by the state fluctuated over the centuries but eventually were established by treaties with the British Agent Robert Sandeman in the late 19th century. Parts of the state to the north and northeast were leased or ceded to form the province of British Baluchistan which later gained the status of a Chief Commissioners province.

On 31 March 1948, the state acceded to Pakistan and went on to form the Baluchistan States Union on 3 October 1952 with three neighbouring states. The state of Kalat ceased to exist on 14 October 1955 when the province of West Pakistan was formed.

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The State of Kalat was located between 25°1' and 30°8'N. And 61°37' and 69°22'E., with a total area of 11,593 square miles. It occupied the whole of the centre and south-west of the Province of Balochistan, with the exception of the indentation caused by the little State of Las Bela. It was bounded on the west by Persia; on the east by the Bolan Pass, the Maxi and Bugti hills, and Sindh; on the north by the Chagai and Quetta-Pishin Districts; and on the south by Las Bela and the Arabian Sea. With the exception of the plains of Kharan, Kachhi, and Dasht in Makran, the country is wholly mountainous, the ranges being intersected here and there by long narrow valleys. The principal mountains are the Central Brahui, Kirthar, Pab, Siahan, Central Makran and Makran Coast Ranges, which descend in elevation from about 10,000 to 1,200 feet. The drainage of the country is almost all carried off to the southward by the Nari, Mula, Hab, Porali, Hingol and Dasht rivers. The only large river draining northwards is the Rakhshan. The coast-line stretches for about 160 miles, from near Kalmat to Gwadar Bay, and the chief port is Pasni. Round Gwadar the country was in the possession of the Sultan of Muscat.

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The population is mostly Muslim, with a Hindu population of two percent. In addition, there are some Hindu Hindkowan merchants who have settled in Kalat. As such, there is a Hindu mandir below citadel of the city, dedicated to the Kali; this mandir dates to the pre-Islamic era of Indo-Pakistani subcontinent.


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Rulers of Kalat

The rulers of Kalat held the title of Wali originally but in 1739 also took the title (Begler Begi) Khan usually shortened to Khan. The last Khan of Kalat (Urdu: قلات) had the privilege of being the President of the Council of Rulers for the Baluchistan States Union

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According to the census of 1995, 89% of the population speak the Brahui language and 10% the Balochi language; presumably, this refers to the proportions of the population that name the said language as their native tongue. Over 98% of the population is Muslim. There is a small Zikri minority. The major Baloch tribes of the district are Qumbrani, Keeayzai, Dehwar, Mengal and Zehri. (ALIZAI)

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