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Explore Pakistan | Cities | Lahore لاہور
  History | Early rulers | History of Lahore | Sikh Rule | British Rule | The Independence Movement | Economy | Culture | Parks and Gardens  | Health | Education | Arts and Media

Official logo of Lahore
Area  Total 1,772 km2 (684 sq mi)
Elevation 217 m (712 ft)

Population (2009)
- Total 10,000,000
Combined population of Lahore City and Lahore Cantonment

Telephone code 042


Location of Lahore (in red) in Punjab,
Coordinates: 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31.54972°N 74.34361°E / 31.54972; 74.34361   

Clockwise from top: Alamgiri Gate , Minar-e-Pakistan,  WAPDA House , Food street in Lahore , Badshahi MosqueLahore (Punjabi: لہور ; Urdu: لاہور, pronounced [laːˈhoːr] is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. Historically the main city of the undivided Punjab, it is often called the Garden of Mughals because of its rich Mughal heritage. It successively served as the capital of the empires of the Shahi kingdoms in the 11th century, the Ghaznavids in the 12th century, the Ghurid State in the 12th and 13th century, the Mughal Empire in the 16th century, the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, and it was the capital of the Punjab region under the British Raj in the mid 19th and early 20th century. Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, and the mausolea of Jehangir and Nur Jehan are popular tourist attractions for the city. Lahore is also home to many British colonial structures built in the Mughal-Gothic style, such as the Lahore High Court, the General Post Office (GPO), the Lahore Museum, and many older universities including the University of the Punjab. Lahore is often referred to as the cultural heart of Pakistan, as it is the center of Pakistani arts, films and intelligentsia.

Punjabi is the native language of the province and is the most widely-spoken language in Lahore. Urdu has started to become more prominent in many areas due to its official status as the national language and due to increasing migration from other parts of the country, despite this Punjabi remains the primary means of communication in both the city and adjoining rural areas. English has also become increasingly more popular with educated and younger people due to its official status in government and preferred language status for business. Many Punjabi speakers in Lahore are known as Lahori Punjabi due to their use of a mixture of Punjabi and colloquial Urdu. According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was nearly 7 million. Mid-2006 government estimates now put the population at approximately 10 million. This makes Lahore the fifth largest city in South Asia and the 26th largest city in the world. In 2008, Lahore was ranked as a city with High Sufficiency to become a Gamma world city. It has been ranked by The Guardian as the 2nd Best Tourist Destination in Pakistan.

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A legend based on oral traditions holds that Lahore, known in ancient times as Lavapuri (देवनागरी :लवपुरी) (City of Lava in Sanskrit), was founded by Prince Lava, the son of Rama, while Kasur was founded by his twin brother Prince Kusha. To this day, Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence Loh-awar or "The Fort of Loh").

Ptolemy, the celebrated 2nd-century Egyptian astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus River and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna) mostly, in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir). It was described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris or Iravati (Ravi). This city may have been ancient Lahore.

The oldest authentic document about Lahore was written anonymously in 982. It is called Hudud-i-Alam (The Regions of the World). In 1927 it was translated into English by Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky and published in Lahore. In this document, Lahore is referred to as a small shehr (city) with "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." It refers to "two major markets around which dwellings exist," and it also mentions "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one." The original document is currently held in the British Museum. Lahore was called by different names throughout history. To date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded. Some historians trace the history of the city as far back as 4000 years ago.

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Early Rulers

Old House Lahore11th Century House in Walled CityFew references to Lahore exist for times before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the eleventh century. In 1021, Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the throne and made Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. The sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. As the first Muslim ruler of Lahore, Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city. He added many important features, such as city gates and a masonry fort, built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one, which had been demolished in the fighting (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695–96). The present Lahore Fort stands on the same location. Under his rule, the city became a cultural and academic center, renowned for poetry.The tomb of Malik Ayaz can still be seen in the Rang Mahal commercial area of town.

After the fall of the Ghaznavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by various Muslim dynasties known as the Delhi Sultanate, including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayyid, Lodhis and Suris. When Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aybak was crowned here in 1206, he became the first Muslim sultan of the South Asia.It was not until 1524 that Lahore became part of the Mughal Empire.

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History of LahoreLahore Fort

The origins of Lahore are shrouded in the mists of antiquity but Lahore is undoubtedly ancient. Legend has it that it was founded about 4,000 years ago by Loh, son of Rama, the hero of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. Historically, it has been proved that Lahore is at least 2,000 years old. Hieun-tasng, the famous Chinese pilgrim has given a vivid description of Lahore which he visited in the early parts of the 7th century AD. Lying on the main trade and invasion routes to South Asia, Lahore has been ruled and plundered by a number of dynasties and hordes. Muslim rule began here when Qutub-ud-din Aibak was crowned in Lahore in 1206 and thus became the first Muslim Sultan of the South Asia. It waxed and waned in importance during the Sultanate. However, it touched the zenith of its glory during the Mughal rule from 1524 to 1752. The Mughals, who were famous as builders, gave Lahore some of its finest architectural monuments, many of which are extinct today

Badshahi MosqueFrom 1524 to 1752, Lahore was part of the Mughal Empire, and from 1584 to 1598, under the emperors Akbar and Jahangir, the city served as its capital. Lahore reached a peak of architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, many of whose buildings and gardens have survived the ravages of time. Lahore's reputation for beauty fascinated the English poet John Milton, who wrote "Agra and Lahore, the Seat of the Great Mughal" in 1670.During this time, the massive Lahore Fort was built. A few buildings within the fort were added by Akbar's son, Mughal emperor Jahangir, who is buried in the city. Jahangir's Jehangir Tombson, Shahjahan Burki, was born in Lahore. He, like his father, extended the Lahore Fort and built many other structures in the city, including the Shalimar Gardens. The last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, built the city's most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate next to the Lahore Fort.
During the 18th century, as Mughal power dwindled, Lahore was often invaded, and government authority was lacking. The great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah said of the situation, "khada peeta wahy da, baqi Ahmad Shahy da" — "we have nothing with us except what we eat and wear, all other things are for Ahmad Shah". Ahmad Shah Durrani captured remnants of the Mughal Empire and had consolidated control over the Punjab and Kashmir regions by 1761.
The 1740s were years of chaos, and the city had nine different governors between 1745 and 1756. Invasions and chaos in local government allowed bands of warring Sikhs to gain control in some areas. In 1801, the 12 Sikh Misls joined into one to form a sovereign Sikh state ruled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

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Sikh RuleRanjit Singh

During the 1740s, frequent invasions by Afghans led by Ahmad Shah Abdali and chaos in local government had made life very uncomfortable for the citizens of Lahore. Bhangi Misl was the fist Sikh band to plunder the Mughal Lahore. Later Ranjit Singh was able to make gains in this chaos. He defeated the son of Abdali, Zaman Shah in a battle between Lahore and Amritsar. Out of the chaos of Afghani and Sikh conflicts emerged a victorious Sikh by the name of Ranjit Singh who was able to unify the Sikh factions and capture Lahore where he was crowned Emperor

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British Rule

1983's Map of Lahore Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and was able to expand the kingdom to the Khyber Pass and also included Jammu and Kashmir, while keeping the British from expanding across the River Sutlej for more than 40 years. After his death in 1839 the internecine fighting between the Sikhs and several rapid forfeitures of territory by his sons, along with the intrigues of the Dogras and two Anglo-Sikh wars, eventually led to British control of the Lahore Darbar ten years later. For the British, Punjab was a frontier province, because Lahore had boundaries with Afghanistan and Persia. Therefore, the Punjabis, unlike the Bengalis and the Sindhis, were not allowed to use their mother tongue as an official language. The British first introduced Urdu as an official language in Punjab,[24][25] including Lahore, allegedly due to a fear of Punjabi nationalism. Under British rule (1849–1947), colonial architecture in Lahore combined Mughal, Gothic and Victorian styles. Under Bristish rule, Sir Ganga Ram (Father of Modern Lahore), designed and built General Post Office, Lahore Museum, Aitchison College, Mayo School of Arts (now the NCA), Ganga Ram Hospital, Lady Mclagan Girls High School, the chemistry department of the Government College University, the Albert Victor wing of Mayo Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram High School (now Lahore College for Women) the Hailey College of Commerce, Ravi Road House for the Disabled, the Ganga Ram Trust Building on The Mall, and Lady Maynard Industrial School.[26] He also constructed Lahore Model Town, a suburb that has recently developed into a cultural center for Lahore's growing socioeconomic elite.

Punjab Exhibition BuildingThe GPO and YMCA buildings in Lahore commemorated the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria, an event marked by the construction of clock towers and monuments all over British India. Other important British buildings included the High Court, the Government College University, the museums, the National College of Arts, Montgomery Hall, Tollinton Market, the University of the Punjab (Old Campus) and the Provincial Assembly. Even today, Mall Road retains a variety of Gothic and Victorian style buildings built during the British Raj. At one end of The Mall stands the university, one of the most prestigious universities of Pakistan. The British also launched the city's first horse-racing club in 1924, starting a tradition that continues today at the Lahore Race Club.

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The Independence MovementMinar-e-Pakistan

Lahore played a special role in the independence movements of both India and Pakistan. The 1929 Indian National Congress session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, the Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Pandit Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929.On this occasion, the contemporary tricolour of India (with a chakra at its centre) was hoisted for the first time as a national flag, and thousands of people saluted it.
Lahore's prison was used by the British to detain revolutionary freedom fighters. Noted freedom fighter Jatin Das died in Lahore's prison after fasting for 63 days in protest of British treatment of political prisoners. One of the greatest martyrs in the history of Indian independence, Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh, was hanged here.

The most important session of the All India Muslim League (later the Pakistan Muslim League), demanding the creation of Pakistan, was held in Lahore in 1940. Muslims under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam (Muhammad Ali Jinnah) demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India in a document known as the Pakistan Resolution or the Lahore Resolution. It was during this session that Jinnah, the leader of the league, publicly proposed the Two-Nation Theory for the first time.

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As of 2008, the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at $40 billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent.This is at par with Pakistan's other economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore (having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi's ($78 billion in 2008).The contribution of Lahore to the national economy is supposed to be around 13.2%.Lahore's GDP is projected to be $102 billion by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum, as compared to Karachi's 5.5%.Central to Lahore's economy is the Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE), Pakistan's second largest stock exchange. Lahore has offices of several Pakistani government corporations including the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Water and Sewage Authority (WASA). Food and restaurant businesses remain open all night. Lahore is the second largest financial hub of Pakistan and has industrial areas including Kot Lakhpat and the new Sundar Industrial Estate (near Raiwand). Lahore’s economic base is broad and varied. Major industries include the manufacture of automobiles and motorcycles, home appliances, steel, telecommunications, information technology, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, engineering, and construction material.[citation needed] A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries.Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services. The city is the country’s largest software producing center,[45] and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry.

WapdahouseLahore's economic strength relies on the fact that it is the biggest city of Pakistan's most populous province. It is also the most advanced in terms of infrastructure, having extensive and relatively well developed road links to all major cities in Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, a rail link with India and the province's biggest International airport. It also has the most developed communications infrastructure in the province, which includes a wide network of fiber optic telephone and cable lines, GSM mobile network, IPP and WiMax. It has the most developed education and health sectors as well, making it the economic, political and educational hub of the province. ‎ As Lahore expands, former residential areas are being turned into commercial centres, and the suburban population is constantly moving outwards. This has resulted in the development of the Liberty Market, MM Alam Road, the new Jail Road (which has some of the largest office buildings in Lahore), and the Main Boulevard.

Lahore is famous as the hub of handmade carpet manufacturing in Pakistan.At present, hand-knitted carpets produced in and around Lahore are among Pakistan's leading export products, and their manufacturing is the second-largest cottage and small industry.

Craftsmen in Lahore produce almost every type of handmade carpet using popular motifs such as medallions, paisleys, traceries, and geometric designs. The Lahore Design Centre at the Punjab Small Industries Corporation maintains a separate section of carpet designing to experiment with new designs. Lahore is famous for single-wefted designs in Turkoman and Caucasian style and double-wefted Mughal types.

Metro, Makro and Hyperstar (Carrefour) have situated their headquarters in Lahore.

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Horse-Cattle ShowLahore's culture is unique. Known as the cultural capital or Heart of Pakistan, the city has been the seat of the Mughal Empire and the Sikh Empire as well as the capital of Punjab in Mahmud Ghaznavi's 11th century empire and in the British Empire.

Lahore has played an important role in Pakistani history. It was in this city that Pakistan's independence declaration was made. It was the largest city in the newly formed Pakistan at the time of independence and provided the easiest access to India, with its porous border near the Indian city of Amritsar only 30 miles (48 km) to the east. Large numbers of Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims lived closely in Lahore before the independence of Pakistan. The city suffered many revolts, demonstrations and bloodshed at the time of independence due to the enmity between Muslims and Hindus at the time and the uncertainty which loomed over the fate of Lahore even after India and Pakistan became independent. Lahore's culture, its history, institutions, food, clothing, films, music, fashion, and liberal community lifestyle attract people from all over the country

The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and other traditions. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are celebrated. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses during public holidays; roads and businesses may be lit for days. The mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri, also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh (Persian/Urdu: داتا گنج بخش) or Data Sahib, is located in Lahore, and an annual urs is held every year as a big festival.

Basant is a Punjabi festival marking the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centered in Lahore, and people from all over the country and from abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharp kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.

The Festival of Lamps, or Mela Chiraghan, is an important and popular event in Lahore. This is celebrated at the same time as Basant, every spring on the last Friday of March, outside the Shalimar Gardens

Food StreetThe National Horse and Cattle Show is one of the most famous annual festivals, held in spring in the Fortress Stadium. The week-long activities include a livestock display, horse and camel dances, tent pegging, colourful folk dances from all regions of Pakistan, mass-band displays, and tattoo shows in the evenings. On August 14, the people of Pakistan celebrate the day Pakistan gained its independence from the British Raj. There are lots of celebrations in Lahore; the streets are full of people singing and dancing. Parades of the Pakistan Army and Pakistan Air Force are held early in the morning. Concerts are held with many pop and classical singers.

Lahoris are known for their love of food and eating. While Lahore has a great many traditional and modern restaurants, in recent years Western fast food chains, such as McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Domino's Pizza, Subway Sandwiches, Dunkin Donuts, Nando's and Kentucky Fried Chicken have appeared all over the city. Recently the food streets in the historic locales of Lahore (Gawalmandi, Anarkali, and Badshahi) have attracted tourists. Food streets have undergone restorations and are cordoned off in the evenings for pedestrian traffic only; numerous cafés serve local delicacies under the lights and balconies of restored havelis (traditional residential dwellings). Some of the trendiest restaurants in Lahore are concentrated on the M M Alam Road in Gulberg. Here, dozens of high-class culinary outlets, ranging from Western franchises to traditional, ethnic, or theme restaurants, attract all classes of Lahore's citizens. New restaurants are constantly opening, and the business is extremely competitive. Many boisterous restaurants of Lahore are open late into the night. The restaurant is housed in a 300-year-old Kothi-style dwelling of a famous artist and was once a brothel. At different times in the life of this property, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, and Muslim families have owned it. Another famous Lahore landmark is the Pak Tea House in Anarkali, long a favoured haunt of intellectuals and artists

Anarkali PakistanThe alleys and lanes of these bazaars are full of traditional wares like leather articles, embroidered garments, glass bangles, beaten gold and silver jewelry, and creations in silk. Anarkali is named after the famous courtesan of Akbar’s time, Anarkali (Pomegranate Blossom). The grave of Sultan Qutbuddin Aibak, who died falling off his horse while playing polo, is located in Anarkali on Aibak Road. Rang Mahal is part of old Lahore and today's houses a largest wholesale and retail cloth markets in Punjab. Lahore's technology markets include the Hall Road, Pakistan's largest electronics market adjacent to the Mall Road, and the Hafeez Centre, Asia's largest computer market, located on the Gulberg Main Boulevard. Pace, a shopping centre, is also located on the Main Boulevard beside the Hafeez Centre. Other well-known and popular shopping areas are the Liberty Market in Gulberg and at the Fortress Stadium, as well as malls in Gulberg, Model Town, MM Alam Road, and Cantonment. Apart from these, shopping areas are being developed in many of Lahore's new suburbs such as Bahria, Lake City, and Cantonment.

Lahore offers a variety of nighttime activities. There are popular shisha bars (offering the flavoured tobacco pipes commonly found in Middle Eastern nations), attractive food outlets, and musical concerts and shows. Alcohol is available to foreigners who request it at certain hotels, but is generally not sold in public. Lahoris are known for their exquisite taste in food, so the market has produced some of the most versatile, classy and inviting restaurants in the world. The blend of food and music at some uniquely expressive locales is exceptional. There are many shopping areas which remain open late into the night, offering an atmosphere of lively hustle and bustle (not to mention numerous bargains). There are scenic parks that are frequented by joggers, couples, children, students and seniors. Bagh-e-Jinnah (formerly known as Lawrence Gardens) is one such place; it has a large variety of gorgeous plants, trees, long and varied pathways and creative light effects. The younger crowd is generally more attracted to shops and restaurants near Gaddafi Stadium, Fortress Stadium and Gulberg. Most of the food chains are also here

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Parks and Gardens  Satellite View of Park and Gardens

Sukh ChaynLahore is known as the City of Gardens. Many gardens were built in Lahore during the Mughal era, some of which still survive. The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Qur'an. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh layout of four squares, with three descending terraces. The Lawrence Gardens were established in 1862 and were originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th century British Viceroy to India. The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga, an artificial forest near Lahore in the Kasur district. Another example is the Bagh-e-Jinnah, a 141-acre (57 ha) botanical garden that houses entertainment and sports facilities as well as a library.

The Lahore Zoo is the second oldest zoo in the South Asia after Calcutta and has been a source of amusement and recreation for families for more than a 100 years. In December 2004, Pakistan and China signed a $110 million contract for the construction of a housing project on Multan Road in Lahore.The result was Sukh Chayn Gardens, a beautiful housing society full of lush green parks and gardens.

Lake CityLahore also has a safari park covering more than 200 acres (81 ha). The park has safaris for different animals. The safaris with tigers, lions, rhinos, elephants, bear, apes, African and Indus plane animals cover an area of 80 acres (32 ha). Pakistan’s largest walkthrough aviary is also located here, with all kinds of birds, including pheasants, waterfowls and peacocks. Birds are kept in their natural habitat instead of being caged; a net fence at the perimeter keeps birds in the aviary. There are more than a thousand species of animals in the park. Lahore's biggest lake is also situated here for boating and fishing.

Jilani Park (formerly Race Course Park) is famous for its floral exhibitions and artificial waterfall. Annual horse racing competitions are held in this park.

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Health Satellite View of Hospitals

Lahore has a number of hospitals, including Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Mayo Hospital, Nawaz Sharif Social Security Hospital, Lahore General Hospital, Jinnah Hospital, Gulab Devi Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Sheikh Zaid Hospital, Ittefaq Hospital, Punjab Institute of Cardiology and Sharif Medical Complex. The current government of Punjab has a comprehensive plan to establish new hospitals and medical colleges in the city

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Education   Satellite View of  Educational Institutes

Lahore is known as Pakistan's education capital, with more colleges and universities than any other city in the country. Lahore is Pakistan’s largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology, telecommunication,Punjab University Old Campus biotechnology and microelectronics. Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. The current literacy rate of Lahore is 64%.

Lahore hosts some of Pakistan's oldest educational institutes: Government College Lahore (now Government College University), established in 1864; Forman Christian College, a chartered university established in 1864; University of the Punjab, established in 1882;Kinnaird College, established in 1913; and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (UET Lahore), established in 1921.

The University of Lahore is a new private sector university in Lahore. It is emerging as a university with strength in the areas of engineering sciences and technology, business & administrative sciences, and biotechnology.
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (UET Lahore) is Pakistan's oldest technical degree-awarding institute and its first university in the field of engineering and technology. Established as Mughalpura Technical College in 1921, it was upgraded to a university in 1961. UET Lahore is Pakistan's largest public-sector engineering university, offering bachelor's degrees in 29 specialties and Master of Science degrees in 55 specialties.

Lahore's institutes in the fields of computer science, IT, and engineering include the National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (FAST-NU) and Punjab University College of Information Technology (PUCIT).

Lahore's notable business schools include the University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), and Lahore School of Economics.

Quaid-e-Azam LibraryLahore boasts some of the finest high schools in Asia: Aitchison College, St. Anthony's High School, SICAS and Lahore Grammar School, which feed students to leading universities across the globe. Aitchison College and St. Anthony's High School have also been responsible for producing renowned political leaders and sportsmen for Pakistan. Other notable educational institutes situated in Lahore include the National College of Arts; a regional campus of the National University of Modern Languages (NUML); Hajvery University (HU); and the University of Education (UE), established in 2002 as Pakistan's first specialized university in the field of education.

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Arts and Media

Lahore is the core of Pakistan's media and arts scene. Pakistan's most prestigious art college, National College of Arts, is located here. Every year, it hosts the World Performing Arts Festival, in which artists from dozens of countries show off their talents. This festival is managed by the Peerzada group, which is also the largest puppetry theater company in Pakistan. Lahore is also home to the country's developing fashion industry, supported by numerous designer outlets and the country's most prestigious fashion school, the Pakistan School of Fashion Design, which has some of the best photo studios and photographers in the country.

Lahore has also been home to Pakistan's old classical music, ghazals and Qawwalis, with big names such as Noor Jehan, Arif Lohar, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Mehdi Hassan and Ghulam Ali residing in the city. In recent years Lahore has produced some of Pakistan's greatest pop singers, such as Atif Aslam and Ali Zafar. The city is recognized as the birthplace of South Asia's modern rock scene thanks to popular bands like Jal, Call, Roxen, Noori and Entity Paradigm, some of whose songs have been featured in Bollywood films.

Pakistan's film industry is based in the city and is called Lollywood. Many films are filmed in Lahore and the city has some of the oldest film studios in the country. Many actors and directors are based in Lahore, which brings many artists together to launch films. Cinema's popularity is on the upswing again in recent years and IMAX is building outlets in the city. Several FM radio stations and television stations have set up their operations here. Lahore is home to Geo TV's Infotainment Division and Pakistan's first children's television channel, Wikid, as well as Pakistan's first community channel, Asset Plus (available only in DHA Lahore) and lifestyle channel, Value TV.

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