By Zahid Ikram

 

Science in Quran :  Chemistry in Quran

 

 

§              The Use Of Molten Copper

§              The Miracle Of Iron

§              The Formation Of Petrol

 

 

 

The Use of Molten Copper

سُوۡرَةُ سَبَإ
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَأَسَلۡنَا لَهُ ۥ عَيۡنَ ٱلۡقِطۡرِۖ (١٢)

Saba 34:12
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

And We made a fount of molten copper flow out for him.

سورة سَبَإ
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اور ان کے لئے ہم نے تانبے کا چشمہ بہا دیا تھا

One of Allah's great blessings to Prophet Sulayman (as) was "a fount of molten copper." This can be understood in several senses. By the use of melted copper, it may be referring to the existence, at his time, of an advanced technology that employed electricity/ heat energy. We know that copper is one of the best metals for conducting electricity and heat, and thus constitutes the basis of the electrical industry, which uses much of the copper produced in the world. The expression "flow out" may indicate that electricity can be used in many fields. (Allah knows best.)

 

 

 

The Miracle of Iron

Iron is one of the elements highlighted in the Quran. In Surat al-Hadid, meaning Iron, we are informed:

سُوۡرَةُ الحَدید
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

لَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا رُسُلَنَا بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ وَأَنزَلۡنَا مَعَهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ ٱلنَّاسُ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِ‌ۖ وَأَنزَلۡنَا ٱلۡحَدِيدَ فِيهِ بَأۡسٌ۬ شَدِيدٌ۬ وَمَنَـٰفِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ ۥ وَرُسُلَهُ ۥ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ۬ (٢٥)

Al-Hadid 57:25
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

We sent aforetime our messengers with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong), that men may stand forth in justice; and We sent down Iron, in which is (material for) mighty war, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help unseen, Him and His messengers; for Allah is Full of Strength exalted in Might (And able to enforce His will). (25)

سورة الحَدید
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

ہم نے اپنے پیغمبروں کو کھلی نشانیاں دے کر بھیجا۔ اور اُن پر کتابیں نازل کیں اور ترازو (یعنی قواعد عدل) تاکہ لوگ انصاف پر قائم رہیں۔ اورہم نے لوہا  نازل  کیا اس میں (اسلحہٴ جنگ کے لحاظ سے) خطرہ بھی شدید ہے۔ اور لوگوں کے لئے فائدے بھی ہیں اور اس لئے کہ جو لوگ بن دیکھے خدا اور اس کے پیغمبروں کی مدد کرتے ہیں خدا ان کو معلوم کرے۔ بےشک خدا قوی (اور) غالب ہے (۲۵)

 

Surat al-Hadid is the 57th in the Quran. The numerical value of the word “al-Hadid” in Arabic is 57. The numerical value of “hadid” on its own is 26. As can be seen from the periodic table to the side, 26 is the number of the iron atom. With the verse revealed in Surat al-Hadid Almighty Allah indicates how iron formed, and with the mathematical code contained in the verse He reveals to us a scientific miracle.

 

The word "anzalna" translated as "sent down" and used for iron in the verse could be thought of having a metaphorical meaning to explain that iron has been given to benefit people. But, when we take into consideration the literal meaning of the word, which is, "being physically sent down from the sky" as in the case of rain and Sun rays, we realize that this verse implies a very significant scientific miracle. Because, modern astronomical findings have disclosed that the iron found in our world has come from giant stars in outer space.

Not only the iron on earth, but also the iron in the entire Solar System, comes from outer space, since the temperature in the Sun is inadequate for the formation of iron. The sun has a surface temperature of 6,000 degrees Celsius, and a core temperature of approximately 20 million degrees. Iron can only be produced in much larger stars than the Sun, where the temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amount of iron exceeds a certain level in a star, the star can no longer accommodate it, and it eventually explodes in what is called a "nova" or a "supernova." These explosions make it possible for iron to be given off into space.

Stellar nucleosynthesis is the collective term for the nuclear reactions taking place in stars to build the nuclei of the heavier elements such as Iron.

One scientific source provides the following information on this subject:

There is also evidence for older supernova events: Enhanced levels of iron-60 in deep-sea sediments have been interpreted as indications that a supernova explosion occurred within 90 light-years of the sun about 5 million years ago. Iron-60 is a radioactive isotope of iron, formed in supernova explosions, which decays with a half life of 1.5 million years. An enhanced presence of this isotope in a geologic layer indicates the recent nucleosynthesis of elements nearby in space and their subsequent transport to the earth (perhaps as part of dust grains).

All this shows that iron did not form on the Earth, but was carried from Supernovas, and was "sent down," as stated in the verse. It is clear that this fact could not have been known in the 7th century, when the Quran was revealed. Nevertheless, this fact is related in the Quran, the Word of Allah, Who encompasses all things in His infinite knowledge.

Astronomy has also revealed that other elements also formed outside the Earth. In the expression "We also sent down iron" in the verse, the word "also" may well be referring to that idea. However, the fact that the verse specifically mentions iron is quite astounding, considering that these discoveries were made at the end of the 20th century. In his book Nature's Destiny, the well-known microbiologist Michael Denton emphasizes the importance of iron:

Of all the metals there is none more essential to life than iron. It is the accumulation of iron in the center of a star which triggers a supernova explosion and the subsequent scattering of the vital atoms of life throughout the cosmos. It was the drawing by gravity of iron atoms to the center of the primeval earth that generated the heat which caused the initial chemical differentiation of the earth, the out gassing of the early atmosphere, and ultimately the formation of the hydrosphere. It is molten iron in the center of the earth which, acting like a gigantic dynamo, generates the earth's magnetic field, which in turn creates the Van Allen radiation belts that shield the earth's surface from destructive high-energy-penetrating cosmic radiation and preserve the crucial ozone layer from cosmic ray destruction…

Without the iron atom, there would be no carbon-based life in the cosmos; no supernovae, no heating of the primitive earth, no atmosphere or hydrosphere. There would be no protective magnetic field, no Van Allen radiation belts, no ozone layer, no metal to make hemoglobin [in human blood], no metal to tame the reactivity of oxygen, and no oxidative metabolism.

The intriguing and intimate relationship between life and iron, between the red color of blood and the dying of some distant star, not only indicates the relevance of metals to biology but also the biocentricity of the cosmos…

This account clearly indicates the importance of the iron atom. The fact that particular attention is drawn to iron in the Quran also emphasizes the importance of the element.

Moreover, iron oxide particles were used in a cancer treatment in recent months and positive developments were observed. A team led by Dr. Andreas Jordan, at the world famous Charité Hospital in Germany, succeeded in destroying cancer cells with this new technique developed for the treatment of cancer-magnetic fluid hyperthermia (high temperature magnetic liquid). As a result of this technique, first performed on the 26-year-old Nikolaus H., no new cancer cells were observed in the patient in the following three months.

This method of treatment can be summarized as follows:

o                                            A liquid containing iron oxide particles is injected into the tumor by means of a special syringe. These particles spread throughout the tumor cells. This liquid consists of thousands of millions of particles, 1,000 times smaller than the red blood corpuscles, of iron oxide in 1 cm3 that can easily flow through all blood vessels.

o                                            The patient is then placed in a machine with a powerful magnetic field.

o                                            This magnetic field, applied externally, begins to set the iron particles in the tumor in motion. During this time the temperature in the tumor containing the iron oxide particles rises by up to 45 degrees.

o                                            In a few minutes the cancer cells, unable to protect themselves from the heat, are either weakened or destroyed. The tumor may then be completely eradicated with subsequent chemotherapy.

In this treatment it is only the cancer cells that are affected by the magnetic field, since only they contain the iron oxide particles. The spread of this technique is a major development in the treatment of this potentially lethal disease. In the treatment of such a widespread disease as cancer, the use of the expression "iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind" (Quran, 57:25) in the Quran is particularly noteworthy. Indeed, in that verse, the Quran may be indicating the benefits of iron for human health. (Allah knows best.)

Iron is also highlighted in the following verses of Quran:

سُوۡرَةُ سَبَإ
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

أَفَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ مَا بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمَا خَلۡفَهُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ إِن نَّشَأۡ نَخۡسِفۡ بِهِمُ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ أَوۡ نُسۡقِطۡ عَلَيۡہِمۡ كِسَفً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَةً۬ لِّكُلِّ عَبۡدٍ۬ مُّنِيبٍ۬ (٩) وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَا دَاوُ ۥدَ مِنَّا فَضۡلاً۬ۖ يَـٰجِبَالُ أَوِّبِى مَعَهُ ۥ وَٱلطَّيۡرَۖ وَأَلَنَّا لَهُ ٱلۡحَدِيدَ (١٠) أَنِ ٱعۡمَلۡ سَـٰبِغَـٰتٍ۬ وَقَدِّرۡ فِى ٱلسَّرۡدِۖ وَٱعۡمَلُواْ صَـٰلِحًاۖ إِنِّى بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ۬ (١١)

Saba 34:9-11
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Have they not observed what is before them and what is behind them of the sky and the earth? If We will, We can make the earth swallow them, or cause obliteration from the sky to fall on them. Lo! herein surely is a portent for every slave who turneth (to Allah) repentant. (9) And assuredly We gave David grace from Us, (saying): O ye hills and birds, echo his psalms of praise! And We made the iron supple unto him, (10) Saying: Make thou long coats of mail and measure the links (thereof). And do ye right. Lo! I am Seer of what ye do. (11)

سورة سَبَإ
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

کیا انہوں نے اس کو نہیں دیکھا جو ان کے آگے اور پیچھے ہے یعنی آسمان اور زمین۔ اگر ہم چاہیں تو ان کو زمین میں دھنسا دیں یا ان پر آسمان کے ٹکڑے گرا دیں۔ اس میں ہر بندے کے لئے جو رجوع کرنے والا ہے ایک نشانی ہے (۹) اور ہم نے داؤد کو اپنی طرف سے برتری بخشی تھی۔ اے پہاڑو ان کے ساتھ تسبیح کرو اور پرندوں کو (ان کا مسخر کردیا) اور ان کے لئے ہم نے لوہے کو نرم کردیا (۱۰) کہ کشادہ زرہیں بناؤ اور کڑیوں کو اندازے سے جوڑو اور نیک عمل کرو۔ جو عمل تم کرتے ہو میں ان کو دیکھنے والا ہوں (۱۱)

سُوۡرَةُ الحَجّ
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَلَهُم مَّقَـٰمِعُ مِنۡ حَدِيدٍ۬ (٢١)

Al-Hajj 22:21
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

And for them are hooked rods of iron. (21)

سورة الحَجّ
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اور ان کے لئے لوہے کے ہتھوڑے ہوں گے (۲۱)

In Surat Al-Isra Allah mentioned that Dead bodies will become Fossil (like stone or hard like Iron) he will bring us back to life, and also mentioned the relativity of Time.

سُوۡرَةُ بنیٓ اسرآئیل / الإسرَاء
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَقَالُوٓاْ أَءِذَا كُنَّا عِظَـٰمً۬ا وَرُفَـٰتًا أَءِنَّا لَمَبۡعُوثُونَ خَلۡقً۬ا جَدِيدً۬ا (٤٩) قُلۡ كُونُواْ حِجَارَةً أَوۡ حَدِيدًا (٥٠) أَوۡ خَلۡقً۬ا مِّمَّا يَڪۡبُرُ فِى صُدُورِكُمۡ‌ۚ فَسَيَقُولُونَ مَن يُعِيدُنَا‌ۖ قُلِ ٱلَّذِى فَطَرَكُمۡ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ۬‌ۚ فَسَيُنۡغِضُونَ إِلَيۡكَ رُءُوسَہُمۡ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هُوَ‌ۖ قُلۡ عَسَىٰٓ أَن يَكُونَ قَرِيبً۬ا (٥١) يَوۡمَ يَدۡعُوكُمۡ فَتَسۡتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمۡدِهِۦ وَتَظُنُّونَ إِن لَّبِثۡتُمۡ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬ (٥٢)

Al-Isra 17: 49-52
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

And they say: When we are bones and fragments, shall we forsooth, be raised up as a new creation? (49) Say: Be ye stones or iron (50) Or some created thing that is yet greater in your thoughts! Then they will say: Who shall bring us back (to life). Say: He Who created you at the first. Then will they shake their heads at thee, and say: When will it be? Say: It will perhaps be soon; (51) A day when He will call you and ye will answer with His praise, and ye will think that ye have tarried but a little while. (52)

سورة بنیٓ اسرآئیل / الإسرَاء
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اور کہتے ہیں کہ جب ہم (مر کر بوسیدہ) ہڈیوں اور چُور چُور ہوجائیں گے تو کیا ازسرنو پیدا ہو کر اُٹھیں گے (۴۹) کہہ دو کہ (خواہ تم) پتھر ہوجاؤ یا لوہا (۵۰) یا کوئی اور چیز جو تمہارے نزدیک (پتھر اور لوہے سے بھی) بڑی (سخت) ہو (جھٹ کہیں گے) کہ (بھلا) ہمیں دوبارہ کون جِلائے گا؟ کہہ دو کہ وہی جس نے تم کو پہلی بار پیدا کیا۔ تو (تعجب سے) تمہارے آگے سرہلائیں گے اور پوچھیں گے کہ ایسا کب ہوگا؟ کہہ دو کہ امید ہے جلد ہوگا (۵۱) جس دن وہ تمہیں پکارے گا تو تم اس کی تعریف کے ساتھ جواب دو گے اور خیال کرو گے کہ تم (دنیا میں) بہت کم (مدت) رہے (۵۲)

 

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The Formation of Petrol

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴعلی
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

سَبِّحِ ٱسۡمَ رَبِّكَ ٱلۡأَعۡلَى (١) ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ فَسَوَّىٰ (٢) وَٱلَّذِى قَدَّرَ فَهَدَىٰ (٣) وَٱلَّذِىٓ أَخۡرَجَ ٱلۡمَرۡعَىٰ (٤) فَجَعَلَهُ ۥ غُثَآءً أَحۡوَىٰ (٥)

Al-Ala 87: 1-5
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High: He Who created and molded; He Who determined and guided; He Who brings forth green pasture, then makes it blackened stubble. (Quran, 87:1-5)

سورة الاٴعلی
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اپنے پروردگار جلیل الشان کے نام کی تسبیح کرو (۱) جس نے بنایا پھر درست کیا (۲) اور جس نے اندازہ ٹہرایا  رستہ بتایا (۳) اور جس نے چارہ اگایا (۴) پھر اس کو سیاہ رنگ کا کوڑا کر دیا (۵)

 

As we know, petrol forms from the remains of plants and animals in the sea. Once these have decayed on the sea bed after millions of years, all that is left are oily substances. These, under layers of mud and rock, then turn into petrol and gas. Movements in the Earth's crust sometimes lead to the sea petrifying and to the rocks containing petrol being buried thousands of meters deep. The petrol that forms sometimes leaks through the pores in the rock layers from several kilometers down, and rises to the surface, where it vaporizes (turns into gas), leaving a mass of bitumen behind.

The three elements identified in the first four verses of Surat al-Ala parallel the formation of petroleum. It is quite likely that the term "almaraa," meaning pasture or meadow, refers to the organically-based substances in the formation of petroleum. The second word of note in the verse is "ahwa," used to describe blackish-green, greenish-black, dark or sooty colors. This word can be thought of as describing the waste plant matter accumulated underground gradually turning black, since these words are supported by a third word, "ghuthaan." The word "ghuthaan" translated as stubble, can also mean flood-water plants, plants brought together by waste matter being collected and dispersed around valleys, rubbish, leaves or foam. In addition to the connotation of "vomiting out" implied in the word, it may also be translated as "to flood forth vomited matter," and describes the way that the earth "vomits" forth petroleum. In fact, in the light of the formation of petroleum, the way it emerges, its foam-like appearance and its color, one can better see with what wisdom were employed the words in the verses.

As discussed, the plant in the verse turning into a dark and viscous liquid bears a strong resemblance to the formation of petroleum. The description of such a formation over many years, at a time when the formation of petroleum was unknown, is without doubt another proof that the Quran is the revelation of Allah.

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