DISCOVER

the Universe!

Author: Zahid Ikram
Videos and Animations:
www.youtube.com/zee1707

 

Please read this article “Solar System” associated with Universe before you go on.

 

The Universe is defined as everything that physically exists: the entirety of space and time, all forms of matter, energy and momentum, and the physical laws and constants that govern them. 
 

When we think of our universe, lots of questions rise up in or mind...
 

How long has it been in existence? How it has been existed/created?

How large is it?  Is it “infinite” or does it “end” somewhere? 

Does the Life exist other than Planet Earth?

What is beyond its outer boundary?  

 

Recent observations have shown the deep space exploration by Hubble Space Telescope (HTS). http://hubblesite.org/the_telescope/ .  Quran is believed to be the Words of God, The Creator of Life and Universe, which has been revealed by Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him) more than fourteen centuries ago.

 

In Nobel Quran Allah Said: 

سُوۡرَةُ حٰمٓ السجدة / فُصّلَت
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

سَنُرِيهِمۡ ءَايَـٰتِنَا فِى ٱلۡأَفَاقِ وَفِىٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمۡ أَنَّهُ ٱلۡحَقُّ‌ۗ أَوَلَمۡ يَكۡفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ شَہِيدٌ (٥٣)

Fussilat 41:53
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

We shall show them Our portents on the horizons and within themselves until it will be manifest unto them that it is the Truth. Doth not thy Lord suffice, since He is Witness over all things? (53)

ہم عنقریب ان کو اطراف (عالم) میں بھی اور خود ان کی ذات میں بھی اپنی نشانیاں دکھائیں گے یہاں تک کہ ان پر ظاہر ہوجائے گا کہ (قرآن) حق ہے۔ کیا تم کو یہ کافی نہیں کہ تمہارا پروردگار ہر چیز سے خبردار ہے (۵۳)

 

 

 

 

Astronomical observations indicate that the universe is 13.73 ± 0.12 billion years old and at least 93 billion light years (The distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1 year; 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers) across. (God knows best)

The theoretical event that started the universe is called the Big Bang (the cosmic explosion that is hypothesized to have marked the origin of the universe). At this point in time all matter and energy of the observable universe was concentrated in one point of infinite density and Heat.

 

 

The Big Bang shows that the all existing Universe (Heaven and Earth) were came into being from a single point, and the expanding universe has been discovered by the experimental measurements such as the redshifts (a shift in the spectra of very distant galaxies toward longer wavelengths (toward the red end of the spectrum) both discoveries presented by the non Muslim observers.

Today of course, Earth is the home and cradle of millions of species of living things.  What makes life possible in part is that Earth occupies a position in our Solar System called the Zone of Habitation.  It is a section of space not too close and not too far away from the Sun’s heat where liquid water can exist for at least a part of a year.  Liquid water covers 70% of the planet. 

Liquid water is vital to all life because it is an ideal solvent.  Foods and waste products easily dissolve in it, and it circulates nutrients through a living creature’s body or cells.  We know of no life form that exists without water in some form.    

 

Allah said in Quran.

Quran: 21: 30

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنبیَاء
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

أَوَلَمۡ يَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ ڪَانَتَا رَتۡقً۬ا فَفَتَقۡنَـٰهُمَا‌ۖ وَجَعَلۡنَا مِنَ ٱلۡمَآءِ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ حَىٍّ‌ۖ أَفَلَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ (٣٠)

 

Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them, and we made every living thing of water? Will they not then believe? (30)

 

کیا کافروں نے نہیں دیکھا کہ آسمان اور زمین دونوں ملے ہوئے تھے تو ہم نے جدا جدا کردیا۔ اور تمام جاندار چیزیں ہم نے پانی سے بنائیں۔ پھر یہ لوگ ایمان کیوں نہیں لاتے؟ (۳۰)

 

 

After the Big Bang the universe started to expand to its present form. Since special relativity (Einstein's special theory of relativity: A physical theory of relativity based on the assumption that the speed of light in a vacuum is a constant and the assumption that the laws of physics are invariant in all inertial systems) states that matter cannot exceed the speed of light, in a fixed space-time, it may seem paradoxical that two galaxies can be separated by 93 billion light years in 13 billion years; however, this separation is a natural consequence of general relativity. Stated simply, space can expand with no intrinsic limit on its rate; thus, two galaxies can separate more quickly than the speed of light if the space between them grows.

 

The Universe is expanding, it has been mentioned in Quran:

 

سُوۡرَةُ الذّاریَات
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ


وَٱلسَّمَآءَ بَنَيۡنَـٰهَا بِأَيۡيْدٍ۬ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ (٤٧) وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فَرَشۡنَـٰهَا فَنِعۡمَ ٱلۡمَـٰهِدُونَ (٤٨) وَمِن ڪُلِّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقۡنَا زَوۡجَيۡنِ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَكَّرُونَ (٤٩)
We have built the heaven with might, and We it is Who make the vast extent (thereof). (47) And the earth have We laid out, how gracious is the Spreader (thereof)! (48) And all things We have created by pairs, that haply ye may reflect. (49)

Adh-Dhariyat 51:47-49

اور آسمانوں کو ہم ہی نے ہاتھوں سے بنایا اور ہم کو سب مقدور ہے (۴۷) اور زمین کو ہم ہی نے بچھایا تو (دیکھو) ہم کیا خوب بچھانے والے ہیں (۴۸) اور ہر چیز کی ہم نے دو قسمیں بنائیں تاکہ تم نصیحت پکڑو (۴۹)
 

Experimental measurements such as the redshifts; generally interpreted as evidence that the universe is expanding) and spatial distribution of distant galaxies, the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the relative percentages of the lighter chemical elements, support this theoretical expansion and, more generally, the Big Bang theory, which proposes that space itself, was created ex nihilo (Creation out of nothing) at a specific time in the past.

The particle horizon of the observable universe is the boundary that represents the maximum distance at which events can currently be observed.

For events beyond that distance, light hasn't had time to reach our location, even if it were emitted at the time the universe began. How the particle horizon changes with time depends on the nature of the expansion of the universe. If the expansion has certain characteristics, there are parts of the universe that will never be observable, no matter how long the observer waits for light from those regions to arrive. The boundary past which events can't ever be observed is an Event Horizon, and it represents the maximum extent of the particle horizon. 

 

 سُوۡرَةُ المُلک
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

تَبَـٰرَكَ ٱلَّذِى بِيَدِهِ ٱلۡمُلۡكُ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ (١) ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلۡمَوۡتَ وَٱلۡحَيَوٰةَ لِيَبۡلُوَكُمۡ أَيُّكُمۡ أَحۡسَنُ عَمَلاً۬‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡغَفُورُ (٢) ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَٲتٍ۬ طِبَاقً۬ا‌ۖ مَّا تَرَىٰ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ مِن تَفَـٰوُتٍ۬‌ۖ فَٱرۡجِعِ ٱلۡبَصَرَ هَلۡ تَرَىٰ مِن فُطُورٍ۬ (٣) ثُمَّ ٱرۡجِعِ ٱلۡبَصَرَ كَرَّتَيۡنِ يَنقَلِبۡ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَصَرُ خَاسِئً۬ا وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ۬ (٤) وَلَقَدۡ زَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِمَصَـٰبِيحَ وَجَعَلۡنَـٰهَا رُجُومً۬ا لِّلشَّيَـٰطِينِ‌ۖ وَأَعۡتَدۡنَا لَهُمۡ عَذَابَ ٱلسَّعِيرِ (٥)

Al-Mulk 67:1-5
Blessed is He in Whose hand is the Sovereignty, and, He is Able to do all things. (1) Who hath created life and death that He may try you which of you is best in conduct; and He is the Mighty, the Forgiving, (2) Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou canst see no fault in the Beneficent One's creation; then look again: Canst thou see any rifts? (3) Then look again and yet again, thy sight will return unto thee weakened and made dim. (4) And verily We have beautified the world's heaven with lamps, and We have made them missiles for the devils, and for them We have prepared the doom of flame. (5)

وہ (خدا) جس کے ہاتھ میں بادشاہی ہے بڑی برکت والا ہے۔ اور وہ ہر چیز پر قادر ہے (۱) اسی نے موت اور زندگی کو پیدا کیا تاکہ تمہاری آزمائش کرے کہ تم میں کون اچھے عمل کرتا ہے۔ اور وہ زبردست (اور) بخشنے والا ہے (۲) اس نے سات آسمان اوپر تلے بنائے۔ (اے دیکھنے والے) کیا تو (خدا) رحمٰن کی آفرنیش میں کچھ نقص دیکھتا ہے؟ ذرا آنکھ اٹھا کر دیکھ بھلا تجھ کو (آسمان میں) کوئی شکاف نظر آتا ہے؟ (۳) پھر دو بارہ (سہ بارہ) نظر کر، تو نظر (ہر بار) تیرے پاس ناکام اور تھک کر لوٹ آئے گی (۴)اور ہم نے قریب کے آسمان کو (تاروں کے) چراغوں سے زینت دی۔ اور ان کو شیطان کے مارنے کا آلہ بنایا اور ان کے لئے دہکتی آگ کا عذاب تیار کر رکھا ہے (۵)

Recent observations have shown that this expansion is accelerating, and that most of the

matter (That which has mass and occupies space) & anti matter (Matter consisting of elementary particles that are the antiparticles of those making up normal substances), energy (a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs "energy can take a wide variety of forms") and dark energy (the unknown energy thought to make up about 70 % of the observed total in the universe, associated with a negative pressure that makes the universe expand faster; the simplest form of dark energy is a cosmological constant, however more general models allow for an evolving energy density and pressure) in the universe is fundamentally different from that observed on Earth and not directly observable. The imprecision of current observations has hindered predictions of the ultimate fate of the universe.

 

Experiments suggest that the universe has been governed by the same physical laws and constants throughout its extent and history. The dominant force at cosmological distances is gravity (the force of attraction between all masses in the universe; especially the attraction of the earth's mass for bodies near its surface), and general relativity (Einstein's theory of relativity: the theory that space and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts) is currently the most accurate theory of gravitation.

 

The remaining three fundamental forces and the particles on which they act are described by the Standard Model. The universe has at least three dimensions of space and one of time, although extremely small additional dimensions cannot be ruled out experimentally. Spacetime (The four-dimensional coordinate system (3 dimensions of space and 1 of time) in which physical events are located) appears to be smoothly and simply connected, and space has very small mean curvature, so that Euclidean geometry is accurate on the average throughout the universe.

 

In an alternate definition of the word universe (i.e. encompassing everything) some have speculated that this 'universe' may be one of many disconnected 'universes' which are collectively denoted as the multiverse. In bubble universe theory, there are an infinite variety of 'universes', each with different physical constants. In the many-worlds hypothesis, new 'universes' are spawned with every quantum measurement. By definition, these speculations cannot currently be tested experimentally.

 

Throughout recorded history, several cosmologies and cosmogonies have been proposed to account for observations of the universe.

 

The earliest quantitative models were developed by the ancient Greeks, who proposed that the universe possesses infinite space and has existed eternally, but contains a single set of concentric spheres of finite size – corresponding to the fixed stars, the Sun and various planets – rotating about a spherical but unmoving Earth.

 

Over the centuries, more precise observations and improved theories of gravity led to Copernicus' heliocentric model and the Newtonian model of the solar system, respectively. Further improvements in astronomy led to the characterization of the Milky Way, and the discovery of other galaxies and the microwave background radiation; careful studies of the distribution of these galaxies and their spectral lines have led to much of modern cosmology.

What is weirdest of all is the realization that in an infinite universe, there may be an infinite number of you … theoretically … you might find another living person who was your exact twin (our DNA genes can only be arranged in a finite number of ways).  In fact, since there is always another planet to visit, you could eventually discover the universe filled with an infinite number of people exactly like you … many of them reading this same document and taking this same journey, but in another galaxy far far away!  

Infinity also means there never was a beginning to the existence of the universe, and there will be no end.  It never “started” its existence? Is it has always been, and always will be?  Is Time eternal as well?

Obviously, infinity is a tough concept to grasp.  It is possible that our universe is infinite in size and in age.  However, based upon thousands of pieces of scientifically rigorous evidence collected by very capable people over the last 200 years, our universe does not stretch on forever.  It seems it actually had a beginning, a very long time ago.  Although it is enormous in size, it also may have an “edge” (although it’s not the kind of outer boundary that is easy to describe)!

Well, if that is possible, then just how big is the universe?  How many stars does it contain?  How far away are they?     

It has taken humanity all of its history to begin to understand the answers to these questions.  These answers in turn, have turned out to be the most amazing, most awe-inspiring discoveries that science has ever made.

Are you ready to discover some of them?  Let’s explore, shall we!  Let’s look into the universe! Start from Solar System.

 

 

 

Please read this article about or Solar System associated with How Big is Our Universe before you go on.

 

The Solar system you may have learned about in earlier years has changed significantly in the last few years as new discoveries have been made. Today, our Sun is a mature star surrounded by 8 full-sized planets, 4 “dwarf” planets, (including 3 Plutoid planets), 170 moons and over a trillion asteroids (space rocks) and comets (space ice balls) orbiting around the Sun. 

 

سُوۡرَةُ التّکویر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
فَلَآ أُقۡسِمُ بِٱلۡخُنَّسِ (١٥) ٱلۡجَوَارِ ٱلۡكُنَّسِ (١٦)

Quran, 81: 15-16

No! I swear by the planets-that recede, that ride their course [and] hide themselves.

 

ہم کو ان ستاروں کی قسم جو پیچھے ہٹ جاتے ہیں (۱۵) (اور) جو سیر کرتے اور غائب ہو جاتے ہیں (۱۶)

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الذّاریَات
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَٱلسَّمَآءِ ذَاتِ ٱلۡحُبُكِ

وَٱلسَّمَآءَ بَنَيۡنَـٰهَا بِأَيۡيْدٍ۬ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ (٤٧) وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فَرَشۡنَـٰهَا فَنِعۡمَ ٱلۡمَـٰهِدُونَ (٤٨)

Adh-Dhariyat 51: 7, 47-48
By the heaven full of paths, (7)

We have built the heaven with might, and We it is Who make the vast extent (thereof). (47) And the earth have We laid out, how gracious is the Spreader (thereof)! (48)  

اور آسمان کی قسم جس میں رستے ہیں (۷)

 اور آسمانوں کو ہم ہی نے ہاتھوں سے بنایا اور ہم کو سب مقدور ہے (۴۷) اور زمین کو ہم ہی نے بچھایا تو (دیکھو) ہم کیا خوب بچھانے والے ہیں (۴۸)

 

There is strong evidence indicating that since its birth billions of years ago, the universe has been growing … inflating … expanding fast like a balloon.  Our universe is getting bigger.  You must be wondering about the creation of Heavens and Earth, Day and Night, and Natural Life Support System on Earth?

 

سُوۡرَةُ البَقَرَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
إِنَّ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱخۡتِلَـٰفِ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ وَٱلۡفُلۡكِ ٱلَّتِى تَجۡرِى فِى ٱلۡبَحۡرِ بِمَا يَنفَعُ ٱلنَّاسَ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن مَّآءٍ۬ فَأَحۡيَا بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِہَا وَبَثَّ فِيہَا مِن ڪُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ۬ وَتَصۡرِيفِ ٱلرِّيَـٰحِ وَٱلسَّحَابِ ٱلۡمُسَخَّرِ بَيۡنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ (١٦٤)

Al-Baqara 2:164
Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and earth, and the alternation of the night and the day, and the [great] ships which sail through the sea with that which benefits people, and what Allah has sent down from the heavens of rain, giving life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and dispersing therein every [kind of] moving creature, and [His] directing of the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth are signs for a people who use reason. (164)

بےشک آسمانوں اور زمین کے پیدا کرنے میں اور رات اور دن کے ایک دوسرے کے پیچھے آنے جانے میں اور کشتیوں اور جہازوں میں جو دریا میں لوگوں کے فائدے کی چیزیں لے کر رواں ہیں اور مینہ میں جس کو خدا آسمان سے برساتا اور اس سے زمین کو مرنے کے بعد زندہ (یعنی خشک ہوئے پیچھے سرسبز) کردیتا ہے اور زمین پر ہر قسم کے جانور پھیلانے میں اور ہواؤں کے چلانےمیں اور بادلوں میں جو آسمان اور زمین کے درمیان گھرے رہتے ہیں۔ عقلمندوں کے لئے (خدا کی قدرت کی) نشانیاں ہیں (۱۶۴)

 

Lets compare the size of planets in solar system with Sun.

 

 

Body

Actual

Diameter

kilometers

Scale

Diameter

inches

Scale

Diameter

mm

Sun

1391900

100

 

Mercury

4866

 

8.88

Venus

12106

 

22.092

Earth

12742

 

23.252

Mars

6760

 

12.336

Jupiter

139516

 

254.595

Saturn

116438

 

212.481

Uranus

46940

 

85.658

Neptune

45432

 

82.906

Pluto

3400

 

6.204


 

Have you noticed that how small is our earth as compared with the size of Sun?

So far, Jupiter is at very very very short distance into space from Earth. 

Space, however, is far, far, far FAR bigger than you have yet imagine.  For example, even at light speed, it would take over 5 hours to fly from Earth to Pluto, our outermost dwarf planet.  Beyond Pluto, our Solar System continues for billions of miles more, to the home of the comets, large balls of ice and rock that circle the Sun far out in the cold darkness of space.  Comets are very old and formed billions of years ago when our Solar System formed. 

 

Our Moon seems to be lazily drifting but it travels very fast through space on its endless orbit around Earth.  In fact, the average orbital speed of the Moon is a whopping 1 km/sec, or 3,600 km/hour (2,236 mph).  Actually, it is moving a lot faster than that through space.  Earth obviously moves through space as it orbits the Sun, pulling the Moon with it.  The Sun in turn, is flying through space as it orbits the Milky Way Galaxy, to which it belongs, drags its entire solar system with it.  Right now, the Sun, the Earth, the Moon, and you …are moving through space at the incredible speed of 900,000 km/hour (560,000 mph).  It’s true!  Bet you never realized you could move so fast!

 

The temperature near the moon is a bone-freezing – 290º F (-179º C).  The Moon is an amazing place.  It is billions of years old and has been a companion to Earth for a long time.  In fact, without the Moon, no higher forms of life on Earth could exist.  The reason is the gravity of the Moon.  It stabilizes Earth’s spin and prevents our planet from wobbling on its axis.  As a result, our climate stays reasonably steady for millions of years, allowing life to flourish.

  

Jupiter is about 4.5 au from us, or about 650,000,000 km (420,000,000 miles).  That is a LONG way!  Most folks do not understand just how far that really is.  If you wished to travel to Jupiter in the family car at normal highway speeds, consider this!  You would sit in your car looking out your window … for your entire life … driving 24 hours a day … without a rest stop … without sleep.  When you were 90 years old, with your entire life having passed by in your car, you would only be 10% of the way to Jupiter!!!

 

Jupiter is the biggest planet in our Solar System.  14 Earths could fit across it from side to side.  It is surrounded by 63 moons.  Some of Jupiter’s moons have surface conditions that could support life as we know it, including volcanoes and even oceans of frozen water.

 

One of its big moons named Io, Jupiter has no solid surface.  Rather, it is made of gas that just gets denser as you fall inward.  Although it is much thinner and dimmer, it also has a ring like Saturn and has swirling clouds high up in its atmosphere moving at supersonic speeds.

Embedded in its clouds is a Great Red Spot, a huge hurricane-like storm that has been swirling around on Jupiter for over 300 years.  No one is sure why it is so long-lived.


Comet Halley as it orbits the Sun in 1986.  Its beautiful colored tail of gas and dust is steaming away behind it. In the distance is our Sun, surrounded by five of its planets. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley's_Comet

 

Notice that its pale lavender tail of gases is streaming directly away from the Sun.  When the heat from the Sun hits a comet, it melts part of the ice.  What you see streaming away from the comet is vaporized gases, water and comet dust, pushed away by the radiation from the Sun. Notice that a comet is simply a big, dirty ice ball (called the Nucleus), surrounded by a haze of vaporized gas and dust called a “Coma”.  The tail streams out behind the coma.

 

It’s about 28 km in diameter (17 miles).  Halley's nucleus is relatively small (barely 15 kilometers long, 8 kilometers wide and perhaps 8 kilometers thick; JPL lists its average diameter as only 11 km). Yet it is a massive object.  If it ever hit Earth, its collision effects would wipe out all life on our planet.

 

Halley orbits the Sun just as Earth does, but much farther away. Halley swings in an orbit that takes it relatively close to the Sun every 76 years.  However, most comets orbit the Sun in two large zones or “belts” much farther away.  These zones are called the Kuiper Belt (pronounced “kyper”), and the Oort Cloud.  Within these two areas of space may exist over 1 trillion comets.

 

Kuiper Belt

 

Oort cloud, far from our Sun and its family of planets.

 

If we started our trip from Earth and flew to Oort at the speed of our family car, it would take … well … it would take over 8 MILLION YEARS to get here. 
Yes! It’s true! Yet, we are not even out of our own Solar System.  Our journey into the universe has barely even begun

 

It is over 3 trillion miles/km from the Sun and from Earth.  Here in the loneliness of space there is no heat left from the Sun, and the comet has no tail or coma of vaporized gases.  Everything is frozen.  The temperature is below zero -420º F (-240º C).  If you somehow found yourself outside of your spaceship without a heated spacesuit, you would die and freeze completely solid in minutes.  There is also absolutely no sound outside of your spaceship.  Sound needs a medium such as air or water to travel through and there is no air outside your hull. 

Beyond comet Oort in the far distance is a faint band of haze.  That … is the rest of our galaxy

As we have compared the Earth with Sun earlier...
Now!!

Let’s start comparing the Planets & Sun with other Stars.
This Image has multiple Slides, starts from earth

What are Stars? 

They are giant balls of mostly hydrogen gas that gathered by gravity in space a long time ago.  Due to friction, they heated up so hot that gas in their interiors began to undergo a process called nuclear hydrogen fusion.  That process releases enormous amounts of energy that heat stars up to super-hot temperatures. 

They are also very large.  Over 108 Earths for example, could line up side by side across the face of our Sun or Rigel Kentaurus A.  Most stars are also very, very old.  They have been burning in the sky for billions of years.  Our Sun for example, is almost 5 billion years old and will exist for at least 5 billion more years if it is save from the fate of universe…. 

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ التّکویر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

إِذَا ٱلشَّمۡسُ كُوِّرَتۡ (١) وَإِذَا ٱلنُّجُومُ ٱنكَدَرَتۡ (٢)

At-Takwir 81: 1-12
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

When the sun is overthrown, (1) And when the stars fall, (2)

 

جب سورج لپیٹ لیا جائے گا (۱) جب تارے بےنور ہو جائیں گے

 

However, stars don’t live forever.  Eventually, they run out of fuel.  When that happens, they die.  Usually, that death is violentThey explode is a giant blast that breaks them into pieces and shoots the rubble out into space in all directions.  Who can live after this explode on earth?

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الرَّحمٰن
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

(٢٥) كُلُّ مَنۡ عَلَيۡہَا فَانٍ۬ (٢٦) وَيَبۡقَىٰ وَجۡهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو ٱلۡجَلَـٰلِ وَٱلۡإِكۡرَامِ (٢٧)

Ar-Rahman 55:26-27
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Everyone that is thereon will pass away; (26) There remaineth but the Countenance of thy Lord of Might and Glory. (27)

سورة الرَّحمٰن
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

جو (مخلوق) زمین پر ہے سب کو فنا ہونا ہے (۲۶) اور تمہارے پروردگار ہی کی ذات (بابرکات) جو صاحب جلال وعظمت ہے باقی رہے گی (۲۷)

 

 

You are watching a place in our night sky where an ancient star blew up about 8,000 years ago.  All that is left is this incredible exploded cloud of gas and dust, and a small white central core (called a White Dwarf) in the middle of the colored cloud.  This object is called “M57, the Ring Nebula”.  It really exists here in space and looks just like the above image.  It is just too far away to see from Earth without a telescope.

 

سُوۡرَةُ النّجْم
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
وَٱلنَّجۡمِ إِذَا هَوَىٰ (١)

[53:1] By the Star when it setteth, (1)

تارے کی قسم جب غائب ہونے لگے (۱)

Someday, billions of years from now, our Sun will swell to a Red Giant in size.  It won’t be anywhere near Betelgeuse in size, but when it happens, Mercury, Venus and Earth will be destroyed, swallowed up by our expanding star.  Then, after a time as a Red Giant, our Sun will also die in a series of smaller but still fatal explosions, destroying the remainder of our Solar System and throwing its remains into space in a ring shape as a new nebula of debris.   Read Doomsday ..is on its way!   

Proxima Centauri - Our Nearest star after Sun

How far away is Proxima Centauri … our nearest star?  In our fastest spacecraft, how long would it take to get there?  The answer is … MIND-BOGGLING!

Proxima Centauri is 4.23ly away from us. 

 

سُوۡرَةُ النّجْم
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَأَنَّهُ ۥ هُوَ رَبُّ ٱلشِّعۡرَىٰ (٤٩)

[53:49] And that He it is Who is the Lord of Sirius; (49)

Light Year

One Light Year (ly) is not actually a time.  It is a distance.  It is defined as the distance in miles or kilometers that a beam of light can travel in space in one year.  Remember the speed of light from?  Well, if we multiply that speed by the number of seconds in a year, you will get the distance light will travel in one year.

One (1) ly = 9.46 x 1012 km, or 5.87 x 1012 miles.  That is 9.46 trillion km (5.87 trillion miles).  Obviously, that is a stupendous number.  Written out, it is 9,460,000,000,000 km or 5,870,000,000,000 mi

Now, here is the most impossible thing of all.  The nearest star to us is 4.23 ly away. 

 

Please remember from the prior journey in past that the fastest speed ever achieved by human beings was 11 km/sec, the speed attained by the Apollo spacecraft.

 

Well, how many days, weeks, months or years would it take Apollo (or you) to reach the nearest star to Earth (aside from our own Sun)?  To calculate it, we first have to determine how far away the star is from us in kilometers.  That’s easy.  Proxima Centauri is about 4.23 LY away, and 1 LY = 9.46 x 1012 km.  So, the star is 4.23 x (9.46 x 1012) = 4.0 x 1013 km (40 trillion kilometers) (in miles, that’s 24.7 trillion miles (2.5 x 1013 miles)).  Now, just divide the distance to the star in km by 11 km/sec (the speed of Apollo), and you’ll find the time it would take to get there in seconds.  Convert that to years

You should have discovered that to reach the nearest star to us at the fastest speed ever achieved by people, would take you … over 115,000 years That is almost 6,000 generations … of your children, and grandchildren, and great grandchildren, and their children’s children’s children’s children … watching out your ship’s front window … living and dying … century after century, millennia after millennia.  115,000 years … just to reach the closest star to us.  That is 20 times longer than all of human recorded history, back to the days of our most ancient civilizations … 20 times longer

If you left Earth at the time of the ancient Greeks 4,000 years ago, you would only be less than 4% of the way to the star by now.

When we said outer space is BIG, did you ever think it could be THAT bigYet, this is nothing … absolutely nothing …a tiny “drop in the bucket …Compared to what is beyond that nearest star.  Our exploration of the size and wonders of the Universe has only just begun

However, in the scope of the cosmos, it is a tiny, insignificant Red Dwarf star only about 8% the size of our Sun.  Its surface temperature is only 2,000 – 3,000º C, just a few times hotter than the interior of an oven. 

Red Dwarfs are the most numerous stars in the universe.  Although they can have planets and solar systems, Proxima Centauri does not have any planets.  However, even if they did, such systems are cold places.  There is not much heat coming from a Red Dwarf so any planets that do exist around one would be chilly worlds indeed.

There are 70% - 80% of all stars in the sky are Red Dwarfs
cool and invisible to us on Earth without telescopes.

 

Rigel Kentaurus A & B - Next Closest Binary Stars Near to Earth

In the distance close by, is a tight pair of yellow stars named Rigel Kentaurus A and Rigel Kentaurus B.  They are companions of Proxima Centauri and are called binary stars because they are two stars that orbit each other. Neither star has planets either.

Rigel Kentaurus A also called Alpha Centauri A and Rigel Kentaurus B also called Alpha Centauri B are the closest stars visible to Earth with the naked eye and are about 4.365 LY from Earth.  In fact, because they are so close to Earth, they are bright stars in our night sky. 

     

 

Now look at all the other stars out there.  Many of them are thousands of times further away from you than is Rigel Kentaurus A & B.  Please take another moment to consider the vastness of the universe.  This is one of the most fantastic, inspiring and humbling discoveries of all of science. 

The universe is IMMENSE, and we are so tiny in it!!!!!

Incredibly, even that distance is nothing …

absolutely nothing compared to the true size of the cosmos. 
Beyond those thousands of stars in front of you, are …. gasp!
 

At least there are 250 sextillion more stars visible to us!  Did you get that number? 

It is 250,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 or 2.5 x 1023This number is much larger than all the grains of sand on all the beaches and deserts of Earth.  You can’t see those stars without a telescope because they’re too dim, but they are there in the darkness of deep space, stretching away almost to infinity.

 

 

The sky has billions of clouds of gas like this.  They are called “Nebula” clouds.  They form when stars explode and throw their contents into space, mixing with the hydrogen gas that exists in space.  In fact, your body is actually made entirely of atoms from these nebula clouds in space How that material and those atoms got into your body are fascinating stories.

 

سُوۡرَةُ الحِجر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

وَإِن مِّن شَىۡءٍ إِلَّا عِندَنَا خَزَآٮِٕنُهُ ۥ وَمَا نُنَزِّلُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا بِقَدَرٍ۬ مَّعۡلُومٍ۬ (٢١)ِ

[015:21-23]  And there is not a thing but with Us are the stores thereof. And we send it not down save in appointed measure. (21)

اور ہمارے ہاں ہر چیز کے خزانے ہیں اور ہم ان کو بمقدار مناسب اُتارتے رہتے ہیں (۲۱)

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ آل عِمرَان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

 

ِ تُولِجُ ٱلَّيۡلَ فِى ٱلنَّهَارِ وَتُولِجُ ٱلنَّهَارَ فِى ٱلَّيۡلِ‌ۖ وَتُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ وَتُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتَ مِنَ ٱلۡحَىِّ‌ۖ وَتَرۡزُقُ مَن تَشَآءُ بِغَيۡرِ حِسَابٍ۬ (٢٧)

[003:027]  "Thou causest the night to gain on the day, and thou causest the day to gain on the night; Thou bringest the Living out of the dead, and Thou bringest the dead out of the Living; and Thou givest sustenance to whom Thou pleasest, without measure."

(۲۶) تو ہی رات کو دن میں داخل کرتا اور تو ہی دن کو رات میں داخل کرتا ہے تو ہی بے جان سے جاندار پیدا کرتا ہے اور تو ہی جاندار سے بے جان پیدا کرتا ہے اور توہی جس کو چاہتا ہے بے شمار رزق بخشتا ہے (۲۷)

 

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنعَام
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ فَالِقُ ٱلۡحَبِّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰ‌ۖ يُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ وَمُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ مِنَ ٱلۡحَىِّ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤۡفَكُونَ (٩٥) ِ

[006:095] It is God Who causeth the seed-grain and the date-stone to split and sprout. He causeth the living to issue from the dead, and He is the one to cause the dead to issue from the living. That is God: then how are ye deluded away from the truth?

بے شک خدا ہی دانے اور گٹھلی کو پھاڑ کر (ان سے درخت وغیرہ) اگاتا ہے وہی جاندار کو بے جان سے نکالتا ہے اور وہی بےجان کا جاندار سے نکالنے والا ہے۔ یہی تو خدا ہے۔ پھر تم کہاں بہکے پھرتے ہو (۹۵)

 

سُوۡرَةُ یُونس
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

قُلۡ مَن يَرۡزُقُكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ أَمَّن يَمۡلِكُ ٱلسَّمۡعَ وَٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرَ وَمَن يُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ وَيُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتَ مِنَ ٱلۡحَىِّ وَمَن يُدَبِّرُ ٱلۡأَمۡرَ‌ۚ فَسَيَقُولُونَ ٱللَّهُ‌ۚ فَقُلۡ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ (٣١) ِ

[010:031]  Say: "Who is it that sustains you (in life) from the sky and from the earth? or who is it that has power over hearing and sight? And who is it that brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? and who is it that rules and regulates all affairs?" They will soon say, "God". Say, "will ye not then show piety (to Him)?"

(ان سے) پوچھو کہ تم کو آسمان اور زمین میں رزق کون دیتا ہے یا (تمہارے) کانوں اور آنکھوں کا مالک کون ہے اور بےجان سے جاندار کون پیدا کرتا ہے اور دنیا کے کاموں کا انتظام کون کرتا ہے۔ جھٹ کہہ دیں گے کہ خدا۔ تو کہو کہ پھر تم (خدا سے) ڈرتے کیوں نہیں؟ (۳۱)

 

سُوۡرَةُ الرُّوم
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَلَهُ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَعَشِيًّ۬ا وَحِينَ تُظۡهِرُونَ (١٨) يُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ وَيُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتَ مِنَ ٱلۡحَىِّ وَيُحۡىِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِہَا‌ۚ وَكَذَٲلِكَ تُخۡرَجُونَ (١٩)

[030:019]  It is He Who brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living, and Who gives life to the earth after it is dead: and thus shall ye be brought out (from the dead).

وہی زندے کو مردے سے نکالتا اور (وہی) مردے کو زندے سے نکالتا ہے اور( وہی) زمین کو اس کے مرنے کے بعد زندہ کرتا ہے۔ اور اسی طرح تم (دوبارہ زمین میں سے) نکالے جاؤ گے (۱۹)

Did you know that space itself above Earth is very cold (about -260° F, or -160°C)?  That’s because there is very little matter in space to absorb the heat (it’s a vacuum).  Fortunately, the Sun provides enough heat to keep Earth warm.  As a result, the water on our planet stays liquid almost all of the time, allowing clouds to form and rain to fall over the land.

 

Ring Nebula

If flying at the speed of the Apollo spacecraft, it would take you thousands of years just to pass through the Ring Nebula.

Let’s move further out into space.  We’re going to visit a really big star, one called a Red Super-giant.

Betelgeuse

Betelgeuse is not small.  It’s just very far away.  In fact, this star is a COLOSSAL SUPER GIANT, one of the biggest stars in the sky.  Its radius is over 550 times wider than our Sun and it is 640 light years away.

 

It is an old star that someday will explode violently.  In fact, the effects of that explosion may actually reach Earth anytime.  

Red Super-giant Star that someday will explode violently or have exploded already  Find more at Doomsday ..is on its way! 

 

Its volume is so great that 18 MILLION of our Suns could fit inside it

We’re not kidding.  It is very very HUGE!!!

 

What is so incredible to realize is that the journey from the Ring Nebula to Betelgeuse would actually take you 71,000,000 (71 million) years if you tried to fly here at the speed of Apollo.  To drive from the Ring Nebula to Betelgeuse at the speed of your family car would take you almost 30 BILLION years!

AND YET … WE HAVE NOT EVEN BEGUN TO EXPLORE THE TRUE SIZE OF THE UNIVERSE!

 

Rosette Nebula - NGC 2237

Let’s visit a place where nebula material is slowly coming back together to form new stars, possible planets, and maybe even life.  A spot in space not far from Betelgeuse.  In the distance, a beautiful nebula star nursery called the Rosette Nebula (its scientific name is NGC 2237

Stars form by gravity collecting nebula gas and stellar debris from prior explosions and organizing it into a flat disk called a Protostar.  Over time, both the central Protostar and planets will form within that disk.

 

 

Beautiful, isn’t it?  The new central protostar’s gravity has created a star glowing in the center, while the rest of the nebula is still loose and is forming planets.  If we came back here 50 million years from now, all this gas would eventually have fallen inward to create a star not unlike our own Sun, surrounded by a planetary solar system.  In other words, Protostars become hot stars over time.

The Universe has many more very unusual things in it.  One of the weirdest is a space object you may have heard about.  Are you ready?

 

Black Hole 

WOW!!!  Is this thing really in space?  The answer is … YES!  It really is here, and looks much like this!

What is a Black Hole?  It is complicated to explain, but it is a kind of spinning “hole" in space that is sucking nearby matter into it by an unbelievable amount of gravity.  If a star or planet got too close, it would swallow the star also.

 

The structure of a Black Hole is complex.  As you can see, there are usually gases surrounding it, swirling around it and being sucked down its center.  Coming out of it are also two “jets”, which are gases being ejected by the magnetic field of the Black Hole.

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴعلی
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

إِلَّا مَا شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ يَعۡلَمُ ٱلۡجَهۡرَ وَمَا يَخۡفَىٰ (٧)

Al-Ala 87:7
Save that which Allah willeth. Lo! He knoweth the disclosed and that which still is hidden; (7)

مگر جو خدا چاہے۔ وہ کھلی بات کو بھی جانتا ہے اور چھپی کو بھی (۷)

 

The size of the actual Black Hole itself is microscopically small.  It’s true.  A Black hole is invisibly tiny.  Surrounding it, however, is a zone of darkness called the “Event Horizon” that can be hundreds to thousands of miles/km in diameter.  Anything that gets close enough to the Black Hole to enter that zone becomes trapped by the gravity of the tiny hole and cannot escape … ever.  It is ripped apart and sucked into the hole, gone forever.  Even light cannot escape.  That is why the zone is black.

The swirling gas circling the Black Hole is called the Accretion disk.  It too is slowly being sucked past the event horizon and into the hole to disappear forever.  Accretion disk gases can stretch thousands to millions of km or miles in diameter. 

 

Pulsar

If black holes were not strange enough, say “Hello” to a pulsar.  A pulsar is also the remains of a star that exploded.  However, instead of forming a Black Hole, that explosion can produce one of the true wonders of the universe.

It is a degenerate neutron star; small and extremely dense; rotates very fast and emits regular pulses of polarized radiation

 

Neutron Star

When the Red Supergiant star exploded, almost all of it was blown to bits and thrown into space.  However, something was left behind.  It was a small rapidly spinning “Neutron Star” in the center.  It is very tiny, only 10 miles across.  Under the right conditions, neutron stars can spin so fast that they eject atoms into space in two “jets”.  As the star spins, it will appear to “blink” or pulse like a lighthouse.  We call it a “Pulsar”.  We cannot see it blink visually from Earth.  The pulsar is too small to see and is buried in this cloud of gas.  However, we can pick up its blink by pointing a radio antenna at it.  It turns out that radio static given off by the jets pass through nebula gas and reach Earth easily.

 

WOW, does it spin fast!  When people first heard it on Earth, they thought the pulses may have been coming from an alien civilization.  It caused quite a stir for a while!

سُوۡرَةُ یُوسُف
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَڪَأَيِّن مِّنۡ ءَايَةٍ۬ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ يَمُرُّونَ عَلَيۡہَا وَهُمۡ عَنۡہَا مُعۡرِضُونَ (١٠٥) وَمَا يُؤۡمِنُ أَڪۡثَرُهُم بِٱللَّهِ إِلَّا وَهُم مُّشۡرِكُونَ (١٠٦)

Yusuf 12:105-106
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

How many a portent is there in the heavens and the earth which they pass by with face averted! (105) And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners (unto Him). (106)

سورة یُوسُف
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اور آسمان و زمین میں بہت سی نشانیاں ہیں جن پر یہ گزرتے ہیں اور ان سے اعراض کرتے ہیں (۱۰۵) اور یہ اکثر خدا پر ایمان نہیں رکھتے۔ مگر (اس کے ساتھ) شرک کرتے ہیں (۱۰۶)

 

Nebula

The unbelievable structure in above image is called the “Crab Nebula”. 

In the year 1054 CE, an old Red Supergiant star blew up in a huge “Supernova” explosion here.  The explosion sent debris far into space in all directions.  That debris is visible as an expanding nebula cloud of gas and material from the star.  During the explosion, the Chinese on Earth noticed the explosion brightening and then fading from view, and they recorded it in their written journals.  In the 19th Century, modern telescopes found this nebula at that spot.  The debris you see is still expanding outward from the center at millions of miles per day.  Over time, this nebula’s shape will change.

You are made of atoms that were forged inside a supernova just like this.  Billions of years ago, your atoms were also drifting in space, waiting to come together as part of a new Solar System … the system of our Sun.

 

سُوۡرَةُ السَّجدَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱلَّذِىٓ أَحۡسَنَ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقَهُ ۥ‌ۖ وَبَدَأَ خَلۡقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنِ مِن طِينٍ۬ (٧)

ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسۡلَهُ ۥ مِن سُلَـٰلَةٍ۬ مِّن مَّآءٍ۬ مَّهِينٍ۬ (٨) ثُمَّ سَوَّٮٰهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِۦ‌ۖ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلسَّمۡعَ وَٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرَ وَٱلۡأَفۡـِٔدَةَ‌ۚ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تَشۡڪُرُونَ (٩)

[032:007-009]  He Who has made everything which He has created most good: He began the creation of man with (nothing more than) clay, (7) Then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid; (8) Then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His Spirit; and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks give ye! (9)

جس نے ہر چیز کو بہت اچھی طرح بنایا (یعنی) اس کو پیدا کیا۔ اور انسان کی پیدائش کو مٹی سے شروع کیا (۷) پھر اس کی نسل خلاصے سے (یعنی) حقیر پانی سے پیدا کی (۸) پھر اُس کو درست کیا پھر اس میں اپنی( طرف سے) روح پھونکی اور تمہارے کان اور آنکھیں اور دل بنائے مگر تم بہت کم شکر کرتے ہو (۹)

 

We have been on quite a tour of the Universe.  Yet, … we have not yet traveled more than 1/100 millionth of the way from Earth to the farthest part of the Universe we can see with telescopes. 

 

Milky Way Galaxy

Lets’ travel out further…In front of you is our familiar Milky Way galaxy. 

سُوۡرَةُ مؤمن / غَافر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
لَخَلۡقُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ أَڪۡبَرُ مِنۡ خَلۡقِ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَڪۡثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ (٥٧)

[40:57] Assuredly the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the creation of mankind; but most of mankind know not. (57)

آسمانوں اور زمین کا پیدا کرنا لوگوں کے پیدا کرنے کی نسبت بڑا (کام) ہے لیکن اکثر لوگ نہیں جانتے (۵۷)

 

Our Solar System is not more than a tiny red dot in the Milky Way Galaxy.

 

To examine the entire Milky Way and our place in it.  Do you see where we are?  The Milky Way is a “spiral” galaxy and we are in one of its spiral arms. Look at red mark for our solar system.

A galaxy is a giant rotating clump of stars, gas and space dust in space.  When we say, “giant”, we mean Colossal!  The Milky Way is the name of the galaxy containing our Solar System.  That haze in front of you is stars … billions of individual stars and gas and dust and space rocks.  Their mutual gravitational attraction is pulling them (and us) together. 

The Milky Way galaxy in fact, is estimated to have about 500 billion (500,000,000,000) stars in it.

Remember that each star is a very long way from every other one, so putting 500 billion stars together in a galaxy takes a LOT of room. 

The Milky Way, for example, is at least 100,000 light years in diameter
(that’s 950,000,000,000,000,000,000 km)

 

سُوۡرَةُ الرَّحمٰن
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

(٣٢) يَـٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ إِنِ ٱسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ أَن تَنفُذُواْ مِنۡ أَقۡطَارِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنفُذُواْ‌ۚ لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلۡطَـٰنٍ۬ (٣٣)

Ar-Rahman
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

O company of jinn and men, if ye have power to penetrate (all) regions of the heavens and the earth, then penetrate (them)! Ye will never penetrate them save with (Our) sanction. (33)

سورة الرَّحمٰن
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اے گروہِ جن وانس اگر تمہیں قدرت ہو کہ آسمان اور زمین کے کناروں سے نکل جاؤ تو نکل جاؤ۔ اور زور کے سوا تم نکل سکنے ہی کے نہیں (۳۳)

 

Our entire Solar System is flying through space, orbiting the center of the galaxy at the incredible speed of over 900,000 km/hr (560,000 miles/hr).  So, even while you think you are standing still on Earth, you are moving at very high speeds.  It’s a good thing we have Earth’s gravity holding onto us.  In fact, all the stars you see in the sky are orbiting the Milky Way at similar speeds, like a high-speed merry-go-round in space.

Can we fly out of our galaxy and beat the speed of 900,000 km/hr 250 km/Sec?

Please remember from the prior journey in past that the fastest speed ever achieved by human beings was 11 km/sec, the speed attained by the Apollo spacecraft.


Well, how many days, weeks, months or years would it take Apollo (or you) to reach the nearest star to Earth (aside from our own sun)

You should have discovered that to reach the nearest star to us at the fastest speed ever achieved by people, would take you … over 115,000 years!  That is almost 6,000 generations … of your children, and grandchildren, and great grandchildren, and their children’s children’s children’s children … watching out your ship’s front window … living and dying … century after century, millennia after millennia.  115,000 years … just to reach the closest star to us.  That is 20 times longer than all of human recorded history, back to the days of our most ancient civilizations … 20 times longer!  If you left Earth at the time of the ancient Greeks 4,000 years ago, you would only be less than 4% of the way to the star by now.

Now can you think to fly out of our Milky Way Galaxy?

If traveling at the fastest speed ever reached by humans, it would take you over 2.7 BILLION YEARS to cross our galaxy from one side to another.  By car, it would take you … 1,100 TRILLION years!  God Almighty is great.

Please consider what this really means. 

 سُوۡرَةُ آل عِمرَان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
 وَلِلَّهِ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ (١٨٩) إِنَّ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱخۡتِلَـٰفِ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّہَارِ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَلۡبَـٰبِ (١٩٠) ٱلَّذِينَ يَذۡكُرُونَ ٱللَّهَ قِيَـٰمً۬ا وَقُعُودً۬ا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِهِمۡ وَيَتَفَڪَّرُونَ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقۡتَ هَـٰذَا بَـٰطِلاً۬ سُبۡحَـٰنَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ (١٩١)

Al-E-Imran 03-189-191
Unto Allah belongeth the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. Allah is Able to do all things. (189) Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of night and day are tokens (of His Sovereignty) for men of understanding, (190) Such as remember Allah, standing, sitting, and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth, (and say): Our Lord! Thou createdst not this in vain. Glory be to Thee! Preserve us from the doom of Fire. (191)

 

اور آسمانوں اور زمین کی بادشاہی خدا ہی کو ہے اور خدا ہر چیز پر قادر ہے (۱۸۹) بے شک آسمانوں اور زمین کی پیدائش اور رات اور دن کے بدل بدل کے آنے جانے میں عقل والوں کے لیے نشانیاں ہیں (۱۹۰) جو کھڑے اور بیٹھے اور لیٹے (ہر حال میں) خدا کو یاد کرتے اور آسمان اور زمین کی پیدائش میں غور کرتے (اور کہتے ہیں) کہ اے پروردگار! تو نے اس (مخلوق) کو بے فائدہ نہیں پیدا کیا تو پاک ہے تو (قیامت کے دن) ہمیں دوزخ کے عذاب سے بچائیو (۱۹۱)

 

سُوۡرَةُ الرَّحمٰن
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
كُلُّ مَنۡ عَلَيۡہَا فَانٍ۬ (٢٦) وَيَبۡقَىٰ وَجۡهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو ٱلۡجَلَـٰلِ وَٱلۡإِكۡرَامِ (٢٧)
يَـٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ إِنِ ٱسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ أَن تَنفُذُواْ مِنۡ أَقۡطَارِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنفُذُواْ‌ۚ لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلۡطَـٰنٍ۬ (٣٣) فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (٣٤) يُرۡسَلُ عَلَيۡكُمَا شُوَاظٌ۬ مِّن نَّارٍ۬ وَنُحَاسٌ۬ فَلَا تَنتَصِرَانِ (٣٥) فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (٣٦) فَإِذَا ٱنشَقَّتِ ٱلسَّمَآءُ فَكَانَتۡ وَرۡدَةً۬ كَٱلدِّهَانِ (٣٧) فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ (٣٨)

Ar-Rahman 55:26-27,33-38
Everyone that is thereon will pass away; (26) There remaineth but the Countenance of thy Lord of Might and Glory. (27)

O company of jinn and men, if ye have power to penetrate (all) regions of the heavens and the earth, then penetrate (them)! Ye will never penetrate them save with (Our) sanction. (33) Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? (34) There will be sent, against you both, heat of fire and flash of brass, and ye will not escape. (35) Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? (36) And when the heaven splitteth asunder and becometh rosy like red hide - (37) Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? - (38)

جو زمین پر ہے سب کو فنا ہونا ہے (۲۶) اور تمہارے پروردگار ہی کی ذات جو صاحب جلال وعظمت ہے باقی رہے گی (۲۷)

 اے گروہِ جن وانس اگر تمہیں قدرت ہو کہ آسمان اور زمین کے کناروں سے نکل جاؤ تو نکل جاؤ۔ اور زور کے سوا تم نکل سکنے ہی کے نہیں (۳۳) تو تم اپنے پروردگار کی کون کون سی نعمت کو جھٹلاؤ گے؟ (۳۴) تم پر آگ کے شعلے اور دھواں چھوڑ دیا جائے گا تو پھر تم مقابلہ نہ کرسکو گے (۳۵) تو تم اپنے پروردگار کی کون کون سی نعمت کو جھٹلاؤ گے؟ (۳۶) پھر جب آسمان پھٹ کر تیل کی تلچھٹ کی طرح گلابی ہوجائے گا (تو) وہ کیسا ہولناک دن ہوگا (۳۷) تو تم اپنے پروردگار کی کون کون سی نعمت کو جھٹلاؤ گے؟ (۳۸)

 

The Earth is just a tiny rock, orbiting a small star, lost in the immensity of a colossal space that includes hundreds of billions of other stars, a space that stretches for untold trillions of miles/km.  We are just one life form on that rock, one species out of millions that share our insignificant planet.

Humbling … isn’t it!

 

Intergalactic Space

It is very dark and icy cold and lonely out here.  Almost all stars are contained within the galaxy.  Most are gathered in loose formations.  Others are clumped tightly into globular clusters.  To see one of them,

That is INTENSE!  This cluster is called “NGC 104” and contains thousands of stars tightly packed together.  In fact, they are so close to each other that stars in the cluster frequently COLLIDE. 

There are some stars that are orphans, thrown out of the galaxy by gravitational interactions with other stars.  They are drifting silently through intergalactic space around you. 

Mostly, however, the only thing out here beyond our galaxy to keep you company is some stray wisps of dust and gas.  It is mostly just … empty space!  The temperature is close to absolute zero.  It is -450º F outside (-270º C)

You are at a distance of about 50 Kpc from our sun

What do you notice about the space around and beyond the Milky Way?

You should have noticed what appear to be a few other galaxies visible around.  They are islands of stars in their own right.  Some are not too far away, some are very far away.  However, there are only a few of them visible.  Space outside of a galaxy appears to be … mostly empty.   

 

As you look around the dark sky, imagine how many other galaxies exist before you … how many more galaxies there must be in the darkness that your small eyes just cannot see (estimated 500 billion such galaxies so far, and we’re still counting).

Yes!  It is not a misprint.  If you were to count them out loud once per second, it would take you … 16,000 YEARS.  In other words, the few galaxies visible represent the tiniest, smallest fraction of the true number of galaxies out there. 

That is ridiculous!  If there were that many galaxies, why wouldn’t the sky out our window is filled with them?  Why is space so dark, as we look out in deep sky?

The answer is mind-numbing!  Space is filled with them.  We can’t see them all with our tiny eyes because the space they occupy is so incredibly large that they stretch on almost forever.  Their light fades out over distance.

We are going to demonstrate this in a very dramatic way. 

If you’re ready to be “blown away” a distance of over 140,000 LY from the Milky Way (the bigger galaxy). 

 

 To the right of the Milky Way can be seen the two closest galaxies to us.  They are called the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud.  They are about 200,000 light years from the Milky Way and are Irregular galaxies.  The light you are seeing now from those galaxies left them 200,000 years ago

 

Irregular galaxies

These are clumps of stars, gas and dust that form an irregular-shaped blob.  They tend to be small galaxies.  Some are young and just have not had much time to form more complex shapes.  Others are old galaxies that have been disturbed by collisions between one galaxy and another (yes, galaxies can collide).

Irregular galaxies

These two irregular galaxies are in fact, colliding with the Milky Way.  The gravity of our massive galaxy is sucking them into it, causing their prior shape to become deformed and irregular. 

Compare its smaller size and dimmer brightness to that of the Milky Way behind it. 
Someday, all those stars will have merged with the Milky Way.

The galaxy next to it is the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC).  Both galaxies are visible from the Southern Hemisphere of Earth on a dark night.

The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is a dwarf galaxy. It has a diameter of about 7,000 light-years and contains several hundred million stars. It has a total mass of approximately 7 billion times the mass of our Sun.

Some speculate that the SMC was once a barred spiral galaxy that was disrupted by the Milky Way to become somewhat irregular. It contains a central bar structure.

At a distance of about 200,000 light-years, it is one of the Milky Way's nearest neighbors. It is also one of the most distant objects that can be seen with the naked eye.

With a mean declination of approximately -73 degrees, it can only be viewed from the Southern Hemisphere and the lower latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. It is located in the constellation of Tucana and appears as a hazy, light patch in the night sky about 3 degrees across. It looks like a detached piece of the Milky Way. Since it has a very low surface brightness, it is best viewed from a dark site away from city lights.

It forms a pair with the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which lies a further 20 degrees to the east. The Small Magellanic Cloud is a member of the Local Group.

Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)

Elliptical Galaxies

These are large, hot, violent clumps of stars that gravity has organized into a tight spherical or elliptical ball.  In some elliptical galaxies, the stars near the center are close enough to practically touch.

Elliptical Galaxies

 

Virgo Cluster

Virgo Cluster

Virgo Cluster

Above and behind the Milky Way Off in the far distance, virtually invisible in the darkness, is a large collection of galaxies in our local area of space.  It is called the Virgo Cluster, and contains over 1,200 galaxies.  It is 50 MILLION light years from the Milky Way.

You can’t see all those galaxies in front of you because their light is dim and your eyes are small.  However, they are there.

M 87, a very large Elliptical Galaxy (shaped like a blob/sphere) in the Virgo Cluster.

M87

As you fly toward it, galaxies will begin to appear brighter.  One after the other, they will come into view and pass you.  This is how space is.  Galaxies are so far away that they are too dim to see until you get closer to them.

As you watch galaxies come into view, realize that to cross that dark space from just one galaxy to the next one at the speed of Apollo would take you BILLIONS of years.          

Before you are more galaxies beyond the Virgo Cluster … and more … and more.  Their mutual gravity has pulled them together.  There are lots more clusters of galaxies out there.  There are super-clusters and super-super clusters.

In fact, if you flew at 1 million ly/hour for the next two YEARS without sleep, hour after hour… you would just keep passing galaxies without reaching the end of the visible universe.  WOW!

The colors signify spiral, elliptical and irregular galaxies.  The view is dark and lonely.  Only a small faint galaxy here and there is visible.  Our Milky Way is inside the little red box.

Please remember that our tiny insignificant planet is just one small rocky world orbiting just one small star inside that red box of just one of the billions of galaxies out there in the night sky. 

 

Al-Mulk 67:2-4
Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou canst see no fault in the Beneficent One's creation; then look again: Canst thou see any rifts? (3) Then look again and yet again, thy sight will return unto thee weakened and made dim. (4)

اس نے سات آسمان اوپر تلے بنائے۔ (اے دیکھنے والے) کیا تو (خدا) رحمٰن کی آفرنیش میں کچھ نقص دیکھتا ہے؟ ذرا آنکھ اٹھا کر دیکھ بھلا تجھ کو (آسمان میں) کوئی شکاف نظر آتا ہے؟ (۳) پھر دو بارہ (سہ بارہ) نظر کر، تو نظر (ہر بار) تیرے پاس ناکام اور تھک کر لوٹ آئے گی (۴)

Spiral Galaxies

The third galaxy type is the most common in the universe.  It is the Spiral Galaxy, a massive group of stars that is organized by gravity into a flattened spiral disk shape.  Spiral galaxies come in at least eight different shapes that have two spiral arms, four spiral arms, eight arms, etc,

Spiral Galaxies

Our Milky Way is a spiral galaxy of Type “SBc/SBbc”.  Notice its well-defined structure.  At least 70% of all galaxies in the universe are spirals. 

 

            Quran: 15:16

 

سُوۡرَةُ الحِجر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

وَلَقَدۡ جَعَلۡنَا فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ بُرُوجً۬ا وَزَيَّنَّـٰهَا لِلنَّـٰظِرِينَ (١٦)

And verily in the heaven we have set mansions of the stars, and We have beautified it for beholders. (16) ِ

 

اور ہم ہی نے آسمان میں برج بنائے اور دیکھنے والوں کے لیے اُس کو سجا دیا (۱۶)

 

Well, how do we know all this? 

If galaxies are too dim to see at far distances, how do we know there are billions of them?  The answer is a telescope.  The dim collection of galaxies you have been viewing are only dim because your eyes are so small, and can’t collect a lot of light at one time.  If we can give ourselves bigger eyes (say 14 feet or 4 m wide), what would we see then?

On Earth, we have built some very LARGE telescopes.  One of the bigger ones is on American soil and is named the Palomar Observatory.  Its huge telescope contains a mirror 200 inches wide (about 16.7 feet, or 5 meters).  It sits on a high mountain in California http://www.astro.caltech.edu/palomar/scopes.html

Palomar can take photos of M 87, measure its incoming light and study it in detail, night after night.

Humanity’s best telescope is not, however, on Earth.  It is actually in orbit high above Earth.  Its name is the Hubble Space Telescope (HTS). http://hubblesite.org/the_telescope/

Named after Edwin Hubble, the man who discovered the true nature of galaxies, the HST is out there somewhere, high above Earth. What a great looking device.  The HST is large.  It is bigger than a school bus, and its mirror is over 8 ft wide (2.4 m).

In 2004, the HST was pointed at a dark spot in space and its telescopic eye was turned on for 10 full days, to gather light from just that one small spot.  It was an effort to see what was lurking in the darkness of space if we used a really big eye, and took our time.  http://hubblesite.org/hubble_discoveries/hubble_deep_field/

What the Hubble telescope discovered in that small dark spot became one of the most unbelievable and talk-about photos ever taken in science.  Are you ready?

 

Beyond the Milky Way

looking out into the vastness of space.  All the colored dots are other galaxies.  The scene you just saw, containing 10,000 more galaxies, fits within the tiny red square.  We’re not kidding!  ALL of those galaxies in that photo fit inside that little red box.  That is what a 10 day exposure with a telescopic camera focused on the darkness inside that box can reveal.

How big is the universe?  Now you are beginning to understand! 

 

WOW!  THIS is what is really lurking in the darkness in the night sky.  Each object you see in this space is not a star.  It is a galaxy of billions of stars over 10,000 galaxies, all squeezed into this small telescopic snapshot.  To your tiny eyes, this same scene would be simply dark empty space. 

Red Marked area of Sky was photographed by the HST to snap above picture,

 

Look Picture Album: The Universe  http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/the_universe

Look deep into the scene.  In the far distance, you can see more galaxies and more … and more … They seem to go on forever, in all different colors, to the limits of visibility.

Now, imagine the distance between two galaxies The incredible distances between stars are NOTHING … NOTHING compared to the distances between the galaxies. 

Well, there seem to be a ton of galaxies in the image, but the sky is a big place.  What percentage of the sky does this photo represent?

 

What we are about to show you is perhaps … the most amazing fact presented to you throughout this entire journey

Are you ready?  Contained in that space resides an estimated 2.5 x 1023 possible stars.

Realize that the distance between them represents millions of trillions of miles/km of empty space.

 

Scientists have even assigned the size of the visible universe a numerical distance.  Based on careful and repeated measurements of the night sky by thousands of Astronomers around the world, including the amazing image of galaxies you saw earlier, latest estimates place the observable universe at a diameter of over 27 billion light years.  That distance equals approximately 256 sextillion km (256,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 km), or 160 sextillion miles (1.6 x 1023 mi).

 

At the fastest speed humans have ever traveled, it would take you … over 720 TRILLION YEARS to cross the known universe!  WHAT!!!  NO WAY!!! …

 

11 km/s is the incredible speed that the Apollo spacecraft reached on its way to the moon in 1969, and is equal to a whopping 39,600 km/hr (24,600 mph).  It is the fastest speed human beings have ever traveled in all of human history.

سُوۡرَةُ لقمَان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

وَلَوۡ أَنَّمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مِن شَجَرَةٍ أَقۡلَـٰمٌ۬ وَٱلۡبَحۡرُ يَمُدُّهُ ۥ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ سَبۡعَةُ أَبۡحُرٍ۬ مَّا نَفِدَتۡ كَلِمَـٰتُ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ۬ (٢٧) ِ

[031:027]  And if all the trees on earth were pens and the ocean (were ink), with seven oceans behind it to add to its (supply), yet would not the words of God be exhausted (in the writing): for God is Exalted in Power, full of Wisdom.

اور اگر یوں ہو کہ زمین میں جتنے درخت ہیں (سب کے سب) قلم ہوں اور سمندر (کا تمام پانی) سیاہی ہو (اور) اس کے بعد سات سمندر اور (سیاہی ہو جائیں) تو خدا کی باتیں (یعنی اس کی صفتیں) ختم نہ ہوں۔ بیشک خدا غالب حکمت والا ہے (۲۷)

 

Are we alone in the Universe?

 

سُوۡرَةُ الرَّحمٰن
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 يَسۡـَٔلُهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ كُلَّ يَوۡمٍ هُوَ فِى شَأۡنٍ۬ (٢٩)

[055:029] Of Him seeks (its need) every creature in the heavens and on earth: every day in (new) Splendour doth He (shine)!

 

آسمان اور زمین میں جتنے لوگ ہیں سب اسی سے مانگتے ہیں۔ وہ ہر روز کام میں مصروف رہتا ہے (۲۹)

سُوۡرَةُ الطّلاَق
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَٲتٍ۬ وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مِثۡلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ ٱلۡأَمۡرُ بَيۡنَہُنَّ لِتَعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ۬ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَدۡ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عِلۡمَۢا (١٢)

[065:012] God is He Who created seven Firmaments and of the earth a similar number. Through the midst of them (all) descends His Command: that ye may know that God has power over all things, and that God comprehends, all things in (His) Knowledge.

خدا ہی تو ہے جس نے سات آسمان پیدا کئے اور ایسی ہی زمینیں۔ ان میں (خدا کے) حکم اُترتے رہتے ہیں تاکہ تم لوگ جان لو کہ خدا چیز پر قادر ہے۔ اور یہ کہ خدا اپنے علم سے ہر چیز پر احاطہ کئے ہوئے ہے (۱۲)

 

سُوۡرَةُ النُّور
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
 أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱلطَّيۡرُ صَـٰٓفَّـٰتٍ۬‌ۖ كُلٌّ۬ قَدۡ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُ ۥ وَتَسۡبِيحَهُ ۥ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِمَا يَفۡعَلُونَ (٤١)
Al-Noor 24-41

Hast thou not seen that Allah, He it is Whom all who are in the heavens and the earth praise, and the birds in their flight? Of each He knoweth verily the its worship and the its praise; and Allah is Aware of what they do. (41)

 

کیا تم نے نہیں دیکھا کہ جو لوگ آسمانوں اور زمین میں ہیں خدا کی تسبیح کرتے ہیں اور پر پھیلائے ہوئے جانور بھی۔ اور سب اپنی نماز اور تسبیح کے طریقے سے واقف ہیں۔ اور جو کچھ وہ کرتے ہیں (سب) خدا کو معلوم ہے (۴۱)

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الجُمُعَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ ٱلۡمَلِكِ ٱلۡقُدُّوسِ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡحَكِيمِ (١)
[62:1]

All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth glorifieth Allah, the Sovereign Lord, the Holy One, the Mighty, the Wise. (1)

 

جو چیز آسمانوں میں ہے اور جو چیز زمین میں ہے سب خدا کی تسبیح کرتی ہے جو بادشاہ حقیقی پاک ذات زبردست حکمت والا ہے (۱)

 

سُوۡرَةُ النّحل
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَلِلَّهِ يَسۡجُدُ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مِن دَآبَّةٍ۬ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ وَهُمۡ لَا يَسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ (٤٩)

 

[016:049] And to God doth obeisance all that is in the heavens and on earth, whether living creatures or the angels: for none are arrogant (before their Lord).

 

اور تمام جاندار جو آسمانوں میں ہیں اور جو زمین میں ہیں سب خدا کے آگے سجدہ کرتے ہیں اور فرشتے بھی اور وہ ذرا غرور نہیں کرتے (۴۹)

 

Life exists in other planets within Milky Way or in other galaxies, but yet to explore.

 

سُوۡرَةُ الواقِعَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

نَحۡنُ قَدَّرۡنَا بَيۡنَكُمُ ٱلۡمَوۡتَ وَمَا نَحۡنُ بِمَسۡبُوقِينَ (٦٠) عَلَىٰٓ أَن نُّبَدِّلَ أَمۡثَـٰلَكُمۡ وَنُنشِئَكُمۡ فِى مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ (٦١)

[54:60-61] We mete out death among you, and We are not to be outrun, (60) That We may transfigure you and make you what ye know not (61)

ہم نے تم میں مرنا ٹھہرا دیا ہے اور ہم اس (بات) سے عاجز نہیں (۶۰) کہ تمہاری طرح کے اور لوگ تمہاری جگہ لے آئیں اور تم کو ایسے جہان میں جس کو تم نہیں جانتے پیدا کر دیں (۶۱)

 

At the beginning of this journey, we claimed the universe is probably not infinite.  Somewhere out there … it may stop.  There may be a last galaxy outpost somewhere, beyond which there are no more galaxies.  Where is it?  More puzzling is this question. 

 

Does Universe end somewhere? What is beyond the “edge” of our universe?

The answer to these two questions is hard to understand without a detailed discussion of the birth of our universe … a violent birth that appears to have taken place 13.7 billion years ago in an event commonly known as the “Big Bang”.

 

The particle horizon of the observable universe is the boundary that represents the maximum distance at which events can currently be observed. For events beyond that distance, light hasn't had time to reach our location, even if it were emitted at the time the universe began. How the particle horizon changes with time depends on the nature of the expansion of the universe. If the expansion has certain characteristics, there are parts of the universe that will never be observable, no matter how long the observer waits for light from those regions to arrive.

سُوۡرَةُ المُلک
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

تَبَـٰرَكَ ٱلَّذِى بِيَدِهِ ٱلۡمُلۡكُ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ (١) ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلۡمَوۡتَ وَٱلۡحَيَوٰةَ لِيَبۡلُوَكُمۡ أَيُّكُمۡ أَحۡسَنُ عَمَلاً۬‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡغَفُورُ (٢) ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَٲتٍ۬ طِبَاقً۬ا‌ۖ مَّا تَرَىٰ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ مِن تَفَـٰوُتٍ۬‌ۖ فَٱرۡجِعِ ٱلۡبَصَرَ هَلۡ تَرَىٰ مِن فُطُورٍ۬ (٣) ثُمَّ ٱرۡجِعِ ٱلۡبَصَرَ كَرَّتَيۡنِ يَنقَلِبۡ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَصَرُ خَاسِئً۬ا وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ۬ (٤) وَلَقَدۡ زَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِمَصَـٰبِيحَ وَجَعَلۡنَـٰهَا رُجُومً۬ا لِّلشَّيَـٰطِينِ‌ۖ وَأَعۡتَدۡنَا لَهُمۡ عَذَابَ ٱلسَّعِيرِ (٥)

Al-Mulk 67:1-5
Blessed is He in Whose hand is the Sovereignty, and, He is Able to do all things. (1) Who hath created life and death that He may try you which of you is best in conduct; and He is the Mighty, the Forgiving, (2) Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou canst see no fault in the Beneficent One's creation; then look again: Canst thou see any rifts? (3) Then look again and yet again, thy sight will return unto thee weakened and made dim. (4) And verily We have beautified the world's heaven with lamps, and We have made them missiles for the devils, and for them We have prepared the doom of flame. (5)

وہ (خدا) جس کے ہاتھ میں بادشاہی ہے بڑی برکت والا ہے۔ اور وہ ہر چیز پر قادر ہے (۱) اسی نے موت اور زندگی کو پیدا کیا تاکہ تمہاری آزمائش کرے کہ تم میں کون اچھے عمل کرتا ہے۔ اور وہ زبردست (اور) بخشنے والا ہے (۲) اس نے سات آسمان اوپر تلے بنائے۔ (اے دیکھنے والے) کیا تو (خدا) رحمٰن کی آفرنیش میں کچھ نقص دیکھتا ہے؟ ذرا آنکھ اٹھا کر دیکھ بھلا تجھ کو (آسمان میں) کوئی شکاف نظر آتا ہے؟ (۳) پھر دو بارہ (سہ بارہ) نظر کر، تو نظر (ہر بار) تیرے پاس ناکام اور تھک کر لوٹ آئے گی (۴)اور ہم نے قریب کے آسمان کو (تاروں کے) چراغوں سے زینت دی۔ اور ان کو شیطان کے مارنے کا آلہ بنایا اور ان کے لئے دہکتی آگ کا عذاب تیار کر رکھا ہے (

 

The boundary past which events can't ever be observed is an event horizon, and it represents the maximum extent of the particle horizon. 

 

سُوۡرَةُ البَقَرَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡحَىُّ ٱلۡقَيُّومُ‌ۚ لَا تَأۡخُذُهُ ۥ سِنَةٌ۬ وَلَا نَوۡمٌ۬‌ۚ لَّهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ مَن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يَشۡفَعُ عِندَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِهِۦ‌ۚ يَعۡلَمُ مَا بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمَا خَلۡفَهُمۡ‌ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَىۡءٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِلۡمِهِۦۤ إِلَّا بِمَا شَآءَ‌ۚ وَسِعَ كُرۡسِيُّهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ‌ۖ وَلَا يَـُٔودُهُ ۥ حِفۡظُهُمَا‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَلِىُّ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ (٢٥٥)

2:255 Al-Baqara
Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous. (255)

خدا (وہ معبود برحق ہے کہ) اس کے سوا کوئی عبادت کے لائق نہیں زندہ ہمیشہ رہنے والا اسے نہ اونگھ آتی ہے نہ نیند جو کچھ آسمانوں میں اور جو کچھ زمین میں ہیں سب اسی کا ہے کون ہے جو اس کی اجازت کے بغیر اس سے (کسی کی) سفارش کر سکے جو کچھ لوگوں کے روبرو ہو رہا ہے اور جو کچھ ان کے پیچھے ہوچکا ہے اسے سب معلوم ہے اور وہ اس کی معلومات میں سے کسی چیز پر دسترس حاصل نہیں کر سکتے ہاں جس قدر وہ چاہتا ہے (اسی قدر معلوم کرا دیتا ہے) اس کی بادشاہی (اور علم) آسمان اور زمین سب پر حاوی ہے اور اسے ان کی حفاظت کچھ بھی دشوار نہیں وہ بڑا عالی رتبہ اور جلیل القدر ہے (۲۵۵)

 

سُوۡرَةُ النُّور
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 ٱللَّهُ نُورُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ

Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.

 خدا آسمانوں اور زمین کا نور ہے۔

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنعَام
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

لَّا تُدۡرِڪُهُ ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرُ وَهُوَ يُدۡرِكُ ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرَ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱللَّطِيفُ ٱلۡخَبِيرُ (١٠٣)

[006:103]  No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things.

(وہ ایسا ہے کہ) نگاہیں اس کا ادراک نہیں کرسکتیں اور وہ نگاہوں کا ادراک کرسکتا ہے اور وہ بھید جاننے والا خبردار ہے (۱۰۳)

 

سُوۡرَةُ الفَاتِحَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

 Al-Fatiha 1:1
Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Universes /Worlds. (1)

سب طرح کی تعریف خدا ہی کو (سزاوار) ہے جو تمام

جہانوں کا پروردگار ہے

 

 

Lets summarize the size of observable universe

 

The Nearest Stars from Sun

This map shows all of the stellar systems that lie within 12.5 light years from us.

 

The closest star to the Sun is only 7000 times further than the edge of our solar system.

 

The Solar Neighborhood

Universe within 250 light years

 

 

Above map is a plot of the 1500 most luminous stars within 250 light years.

All of these stars are much more luminous than the Sun and most of them can be seen with the naked eye. About one third of the stars visible with the naked eye lie within 250 light years, even though this is only a tiny part of our galaxy.

 

Corner of the Milky Way galaxy

4000 light years away

 

The Sun is located in the Orion Arm - a fairly minor arm compared with the Sagittarius Arm, which is located closer to the galactic centre.

 

The above map shows several stars visible with the naked eye which are located deep within the Orion arm. The most notable group of stars here are main stars in the constellation of Orion from which the spiral arm gets its name. All of these stars are bright giant and super giant stars, thousands of times more luminous than the Sun. The most luminous star on the map is Rho Cassiopeia - 4000 light years away,
it is a dim naked eye star, but in reality it is a huge super-giant star 100,000 times more luminous than our Sun.

 

The Universe within 50,000 Light Years

The Milky Way Galaxy

 

 

MILKY WAY A spiral galaxy of at least two hundred billion stars. Our Sun is buried deep within the Orion Arm about 26 000 light years from the centre. Towards the centre of the Galaxy the stars are packed together much closer than they are where we live. Notice also the presence of small globular clusters of stars which lie well outside the plane of the Galaxy, and notice too the presence of a nearby dwarf galaxy - the Sagittarius dwarfwhich is slowly being swallowed up by our own galaxy.

 

Now!! Can you find the Solar system against the Milky Way?

 

 

Although the Milky Way is but one of billions of galaxies in the universe, the Galaxy has special significance to humanity as it is the home of the solar system.

 

As a guide to the relative physical scale of the Milky Way, if the galaxy were reduced to 130 km (80 mi) in diameter, the Solar System would be a mere 2 mm (0.08 in) in width.

 

The Universe within 500,000 Light Years

The Satellite Galaxies

Large galaxies within 500,000 light years = 1

Dwarf galaxies within 500,000 light years = 9

Stars within 500,000 light years = 225 billion

 

The Milky Way is surrounded by several dwarf galaxies, typically containing a few tens of millions of stars, which is insignificant compared with the number of stars in the Milky Way itself. Above map shows the closest dwarf galaxies, they are all gravitationally bound to the Milky Way requiring billions of years to orbit it.


The Universe within 100 million Light Years

The Virgo Super cluster

 

Can you find the Milky Way in this??

Only bright galaxies are depicted on the map, our galaxy is the dot in the very centre.

Galaxy groups within 100 million light years = 200

Large galaxies within 100 million light years = 2500

Dwarf galaxies within 100 million light years = 25 000

 

Our galaxy is just one of thousands that lie within 100 million light years. The above map shows how galaxies tend to cluster into groups; the largest nearby cluster is the Virgo cluster a concentration of several hundred galaxies which dominates the galaxy groups around it. Collectively, all of these groups of galaxies are known as the Virgo Supercluster. The second richest cluster in this volume of space is the Fornax Cluster, but it is not nearly as rich as the Virgo cluster.

 

The Universe within 1 billion Light Years

The Neighboring Superclusters

 

 

Galaxies and clusters of galaxies are not uniformly distributed in the Universe, instead they collect into vast clusters and sheets and walls of galaxies interspersed with large voids in which very few galaxies seem to exist. The map above shows many of these Superclusters including the Virgo Supercluster - the minor Supercluster of which our galaxy is just a minor member.

The entire map is approximately 7% of the diameter of the entire visible Universe.

 

The Universe within 2 billion Light Years

 

 

Visualization of the 93 billion light year – or 28 billion parsec – three-dimensional observable universe. The scale is such that the fine grains represent collections of large numbers of superclusters. The Virgo Supercluster home of Milky Way – is marked at the center, but is too small to be seen in the image.

 

The observable universe consists of the galaxies and other matter that can, in principle, be observed from Earth in the present day because light and other signals from those objects has had time to reach the Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion. Assuming the universe is isotropic, the distance to the edge of the observable universe is roughly the same in every direction. That is, the observable universe is a spherical volume (a ball) centered on the observer, regardless of the shape of the universe as a whole. Every location in the universe has its own observable universe, which may or may not overlap with the one centered on Earth.
The word observable used in this sense does not depend on whether modern technology actually permits detection of radiation from an object in this region (or indeed on whether there is any radiation to detect). It simply indicates that it is possible in principle for light or other signals from the object to reach an observer on Earth. In practice, we can see light only from as far back as the time of photon decoupling in the recombination epoch. That is when particles were first able to emit photons that were not quickly re-absorbed by other particles. Before then, the universe was filled with a plasma that was opaque to photons.
The surface of last scattering is the collection of points in space at the exact distance that photons from the time of photon decoupling just reach us today. These are the photons we detect today as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). However, with future technology, it may be possible to observe the still older neutrino background, or even more distant events via gravitational waves (which also should move at the speed of light). Sometimes astrophysicists distinguish between the visible universe, which includes only signals emitted since recombination—and the observable universe, which includes signals since the beginning of the cosmological expansion (the Big Bang in traditional cosmology, the end of the inflationary epoch in modern cosmology). According to calculations, the comoving distance (current proper distance) to particles from the CMBR, which represent the radius of the visible universe, is about 14.0 billion parsecs (about 45.7 billion light years), while the comoving distance to the edge of the observable universe is about 14.3 billion parsecs (about 46.6 billion light years), about 2% larger.
The best estimate of the age of the universe as of 2013 is 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years but due to the expansion of space humans are observing objects that were originally much closer but are now considerably farther away (as defined in terms of cosmological proper distance, which is equal to the comoving distance at the present time) than a static 13.8 billion light-years distance. It is estimated that the diameter of the observable universe is about 28 billion parsecs (93 billion light-years), putting the edge of the observable universe at about 46–47 billion light-years away.

Find more at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observable_universe

 

[010:055] Is it not (the case) that to God belongeth whatever is in the heavens and on earth? Is it not (the case) that God's promise is assuredly true? Yet most of them understand not.

[016:052] To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and on earth, and to Him is duty due always: then will ye fear other than God?

[024:064] Be quite sure that to God doth belong whatever is in the heavens and on earth. Well doth He know what ye are intent upon: and one day they will be brought back to Him, and He will tell them the truth of what they did: for God doth know all things.

[042:053] The Way of God, to Whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Behold (how) all affairs tend towards God!

[057:001] Whatever is in the heavens and on earth,- let it declare the Praises and Glory of God: for He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

[059:001] Whatever is in the heavens and on earth, let it declare the Praises and Glory of God: for He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

[059:024] He is God, the Creator, the Evolver, the Bestower of Forms (or Colours). To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names: whatever is in the heavens and on earth, doth declare His Praises and Glory: and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

[061:001] Whatever is in the heavens and on earth, let it declare the Praises and Glory of God: for He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

[062:001] Whatever is in the heavens and on earth, doth declare the Praises and Glory of God,- the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

[064:001] Whatever is in the heavens and on earth, doth declare the Praises and Glory of God: to Him belongs dominion, and to Him belongs praise: and He has power over all things.

سُوۡرَةُ مؤمن / غَافر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ذَٲلِڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّكُمۡ خَـٰلِقُ ڪُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ لَّآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤۡفَكُونَ (٦٢)

[040:062] Such is God, your Lord, the Creator of all things, there is no god but He: Then how ye are deluded away from the Truth!

یہی خدا تمہارا پروردگار ہے جو ہر چیز کا پیدا کرنے والا ہے۔ اس کے سوا کوئی معبود نہیں پھر تم کہاں بھٹک رہے ہو؟ (۶۲)

In order to understand & explore the finite and infinite dimensions of the Universe, you have to THINK FASTER THAN LIGHT, for it’s very existence (identity) & survival depends upon it’s boundaries which wrap it up into a Single Entity.

The one & only thing which defeats the human brain is “ABSOLUTE TRUTH”, for whatever the mind thinks, whether True or False has a Truth Value, 100% True.
 

The brain and its support systems are capable of performing wonders. It is programmed & destined (an inbuilt ability) to control (indirectly or/& directly) the forces of nature. This control diminishes as the mind develops infinite virtual relationships to manage Reality and is fully effective only when it handles (comprehends) the Whole Truth in light of a single relationship between Simplicity & Complexity, simultaneously existing as one entity.
 

Do we really know all about the universe as a single entity???

 

 

 

Do you have to have complete mind? to see a complete universe, or do you have to complete the universe in your brain in order to have a complete mind?

 

Now Stop Comparing

& start thinking about the

Knowledge & Power

of the Creator by seeing this Creation!

 

Don’t you ever ponder over the signs of the Creator???

 

All Praise is to the Lord of the Universe

The Almighty, The all-Knowing, The Omnipotent!

 

Can you imagine the Knowledge & Power

of the creator of this universe???

 

What is Beyond the Universe?

The particle horizon of the observable universe is the boundary that represents the maximum distance at which events can currently be observed.

For events beyond that distance, light hasn't had time to reach our location, even if it were emitted at the time the universe began. How the particle horizon changes with time depends on the nature of the expansion of the universe. If the expansion has certain characteristics, there are parts of the universe that will never be observable, no matter how long the observer waits for light from those regions to arrive. The boundary past which events can't ever be observed is an Event Horizon, and it represents the maximum extent of the particle horizon. 

Some scientists in fact, suspect that “beyond” our universe may bemany of other universes … some bigger than ours … some smaller, existing in multiple dimensions of space and time.  Perhaps we are a kind of cosmic “egg” which has hatched and is now alive … sitting next to other cosmic eggs in a giant nest, universes that have not yet been born.

سُوۡرَةُ الفُرقان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَا فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ‌ۚ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ فَسۡـَٔلۡ بِهِۦ خَبِيرً۬ا (٥٩)

 

جس نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو اور جو کچھ ان دونوں کے درمیان ہے چھ دن میں پیدا کیا پھر عرش پر جا ٹھہرا وہ (جس کا نام) رحمٰن (یعنی بڑا مہربان ہے) تو اس کا حال کسی باخبر سے دریافت کرلو (۵۹)

 

 25:59 He who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days and then established Himself above the Throne – the Most Merciful, so ask about Him one well informed.

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ البَقَرَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡحَىُّ ٱلۡقَيُّومُ‌ۚ لَا تَأۡخُذُهُ ۥ سِنَةٌ۬ وَلَا نَوۡمٌ۬‌ۚ لَّهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ مَن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يَشۡفَعُ عِندَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِهِۦ‌ۚ يَعۡلَمُ مَا بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمَا خَلۡفَهُمۡ‌ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَىۡءٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِلۡمِهِۦۤ إِلَّا بِمَا شَآءَ‌ۚ وَسِعَ كُرۡسِيُّهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ‌ۖ وَلَا يَـُٔودُهُ ۥ حِفۡظُهُمَا‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَلِىُّ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ (٢٥٥)

2:255 Al-Baqara
Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous. (255)

خدا (وہ معبود برحق ہے کہ) اس کے سوا کوئی عبادت کے لائق نہیں زندہ ہمیشہ رہنے والا اسے نہ اونگھ آتی ہے نہ نیند جو کچھ آسمانوں میں اور جو کچھ زمین میں ہیں سب اسی کا ہے کون ہے جو اس کی اجازت کے بغیر اس سے (کسی کی) سفارش کر سکے جو کچھ لوگوں کے روبرو ہو رہا ہے اور جو کچھ ان کے پیچھے ہوچکا ہے اسے سب معلوم ہے اور وہ اس کی معلومات میں سے کسی چیز پر دسترس حاصل نہیں کر سکتے ہاں جس قدر وہ چاہتا ہے (اسی قدر معلوم کرا دیتا ہے) اس کی بادشاہی (اور علم) آسمان اور زمین سب پر حاوی ہے اور اسے ان کی حفاظت کچھ بھی دشوار نہیں وہ بڑا عالی رتبہ اور جلیل القدر ہے (۲۵۵)

 

سُوۡرَةُ النُّور
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 ٱللَّهُ نُورُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ

Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.

 خدا آسمانوں اور زمین کا نور ہے۔

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنعَام
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

لَّا تُدۡرِڪُهُ ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرُ وَهُوَ يُدۡرِكُ ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرَ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱللَّطِيفُ ٱلۡخَبِيرُ (١٠٣)

[006:103]  No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things.

(وہ ایسا ہے کہ) نگاہیں اس کا ادراک نہیں کرسکتیں اور وہ نگاہوں کا ادراک کرسکتا ہے اور وہ بھید جاننے والا خبردار ہے (۱۰۳)

 

سُوۡرَةُ یُونس
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ‌ۖ يُدَبِّرُ ٱلۡأَمۡرَ‌ۖ مَا مِن شَفِيعٍ إِلَّا مِنۢ بَعۡدِ إِذۡنِهِۦ‌ۚ ذَٲلِڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّڪُمۡ فَٱعۡبُدُوهُ‌ۚ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ (٣)

 

تمہارا پروردگار تو خدا ہی ہے جس نے آسمان اور زمین چھ دن میں بنائے پھر عرش (تخت شاہی) پر قائم ہوا وہی ہر ایک کا انتظام کرتا ہے۔ کوئی (اس کے پاس) اس کا اذن حاصل کیے بغیر کسی کی سفارش نہیں کرسکتا، یہی خدا تمہارا پروردگار ہے تو اسی کی عبادت کرو۔ بھلا تم غور کیوں نہیں کرتے (۳)

 

10:3 Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne, arranging the matter [of His creation]. There is no intercessor except after His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Then will you not remember?

 

سُوۡرَةُ هُود
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ وَڪَانَ عَرۡشُهُ ۥ عَلَى ٱلۡمَآءِ لِيَبۡلُوَڪُمۡ أَيُّكُمۡ أَحۡسَنُ عَمَلاً۬‌ۗ وَلَٮِٕن قُلۡتَ إِنَّكُم مَّبۡعُوثُونَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ٱلۡمَوۡتِ لَيَقُولَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُوٓاْ إِنۡ هَـٰذَآ إِلَّا سِحۡرٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬ (٧)

 

اور وہی تو ہے جس نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو چھ دن میں بنایا اور (اس وقت) اس کا عرش پانی پر تھا۔ (تمہارے پیدا کرنے سے) مقصود یہ ہے کہ وہ تم کو آزمائے کہ تم میں عمل کے لحاظ سے کون بہتر ہے اور اگر تم کہو کہ تم لوگ مرنے کے بعد (زندہ کرکے) اٹھائے جاؤ گے تو کافر کہہ دیں گے کہ یہ تو کھلا جادو ہے (۷)

 

11:7 And it is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days – and His Throne had been upon water – that He might test you as to which of you is best in deed. But if you say, "Indeed, you are resurrected after death," those who disbelieve will surely say, "This is not but obvious magic."

 

 

This is my vision of 7 Universes according to Quran

All seven Universes are above each other, like a bubble within a bubble, every universe separated by a Event Horizon, where beyond it no one can observe (Trillions of Light Years Distance) 

Above and beyond the seventh sky's Event Horizon there is Allah's throne, above Seven Universes.

 

سُوۡرَةُ المُلک
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
تَبَـٰرَكَ ٱلَّذِى بِيَدِهِ ٱلۡمُلۡكُ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ (١) ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلۡمَوۡتَ وَٱلۡحَيَوٰةَ لِيَبۡلُوَكُمۡ أَيُّكُمۡ أَحۡسَنُ عَمَلاً۬‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡغَفُورُ (٢) ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَٲتٍ۬ طِبَاقً۬ا‌ۖ مَّا تَرَىٰ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ مِن تَفَـٰوُتٍ۬‌ۖ فَٱرۡجِعِ ٱلۡبَصَرَ هَلۡ تَرَىٰ مِن فُطُورٍ۬ (٣) ثُمَّ ٱرۡجِعِ ٱلۡبَصَرَ كَرَّتَيۡنِ يَنقَلِبۡ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَصَرُ خَاسِئً۬ا وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ۬ (٤) وَلَقَدۡ زَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِمَصَـٰبِيحَ وَجَعَلۡنَـٰهَا رُجُومً۬ا لِّلشَّيَـٰطِينِ‌ۖ وَأَعۡتَدۡنَا لَهُمۡ عَذَابَ ٱلسَّعِيرِ (٥)


[067:001-005] Blessed is He in Whose hand is the Sovereignty, and, He is Able to do all things. (1) Who hath created life and death that He may try you which of you is best in conduct; and He is the Mighty, the Forgiving, (2) Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou (Muhammad) canst see no fault in the Beneficent One's creation; then look again: Canst thou see any rifts? (3) Then look again and yet again, thy sight will return unto thee weakened and made dim. (4) And verily We have beautified the world's heaven with lamps, and We have made them missiles for the devils, and for them We have prepared the doom of flame. (5)

وہ (خدا) جس کے ہاتھ میں بادشاہی ہے بڑی برکت والا ہے۔ اور وہ ہر چیز پر قادر ہے (۱) اسی نے موت اور زندگی کو پیدا کیا تاکہ تمہاری آزمائش کرے کہ تم میں کون اچھے عمل کرتا ہے۔ اور وہ زبردست (اور) بخشنے والا ہے (۲) اس نے سات آسمان اوپر تلے بنائے۔ (اے دیکھنے والے) کیا تو (خدا) رحمٰن کی آفرنیش میں کچھ نقص دیکھتا ہے؟ ذرا آنکھ اٹھا کر دیکھ بھلا تجھ کو (آسمان میں) کوئی شکاف نظر آتا ہے؟ (۳) پھر دو بارہ (سہ بارہ) نظر کر، تو نظر (ہر بار) تیرے پاس ناکام اور تھک کر لوٹ آئے گی (۴) اور ہم نے قریب کے آسمان کو (تاروں کے) چراغوں سے زینت دی۔ اور ان کو شیطان کے مارنے کا آلہ بنایا اور ان کے لئے دہکتی آگ کا عذاب تیار کر رکھا ہے (۵)

 

سُوۡرَةُ نُوح
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
 أَلَمۡ تَرَوۡاْ كَيۡفَ خَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَٲتٍ۬ طِبَاقً۬ا (١٥)

[071:015] "'See ye not how God has created the seven heavens one above another,

کیا تم نے نہیں دیکھا کہ خدا نے سات آسمان کیسے اوپر تلے بنائے ہیں (۱۵)

 

سُوۡرَةُ البَقَرَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعً۬ا ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰٓ إِلَى ٱلسَّمَآءِ فَسَوَّٮٰهُنَّ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَٲتٍ۬‌ۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ۬ (٢٩)

[002:029] It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth; Moreover His design comprehended the heavens, for He gave order and perfection to the seven firmaments; and of all things He hath perfect knowledge.

وہی تو ہے جس نے سب چیزیں جو زمین میں ہیں تمہارے لیے پیدا کیں پھر آسمان کی طرف متوجہ ہوا تو ان کو ٹھیک سات آسمان بنا دیا اور وہ ہر چیز سے خبردار ہے (۲۹)

 


سُوۡرَةُ بنیٓ اسرآئیل / الإسرَاء
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
 تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ ٱلسَّبۡعُ وَٱلۡأَرۡضُ وَمَن فِيہِنَّ‌ۚ وَإِن مِّن شَىۡءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمۡدِهِۦ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تَفۡقَهُونَ تَسۡبِيحَهُمۡ‌ۗ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورً۬ا (٤٤)
[017:044] The seven heavens and the earth, and all beings therein, declare His glory: there is not a thing but celebrates His praise; And yet ye understand not how they declare His glory! Verily He is Oft-Forbear, Most Forgiving!
ساتوں آسمان اور زمین اور جو لوگ ان میں ہیں سب اسی کی تسبیح کرتے ہیں۔ اور (مخلوقات میں سے) کوئی چیز نہیں مگر اس کی تعریف کے ساتھ تسبیح کرتی ہے۔ لیکن تم ان کی تسبیح کو نہیں سمجھتے۔ بےشک وہ بردبار (اور) غفار ہے (۴۴)
 

سُوۡرَةُ المؤمنون
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

قُلۡ مَن رَّبُّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ ٱلسَّبۡعِ وَرَبُّ ٱلۡعَرۡشِ ٱلۡعَظِيمِ (٨٦)

[023:086] Say: "Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Throne (of Glory) Supreme?"

(ان سے) پوچھو کہ سات آسمانوں کا کون مالک ہے اور عرش عظیم کا (کون) مالک (ہے؟) (۸۶)

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ السَّجدَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَا فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ‌ۖ مَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِهِۦ مِن وَلِىٍّ۬ وَلَا شَفِيعٍ‌ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ (٤)

32:4 It is Allah who created the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them in six days; then He established Himself above the Throne. You have not besides Him any protector or any intercessor; so will you not be reminded?

خدا ہی تو ہے جس نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو اور جو چیزیں ان دونوں میں ہیں سب کو چھ دن میں پیدا کیا پھر عرش پر جا ٹھہرا۔ اس کے سوا نہ تمہارا کوئی دوست ہے اور نہ سفارش کرنے والا۔ کیا تم نصیحت نہیں پکڑتے؟ (۴)

 

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الکهف
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا لَا يَبۡغُونَ عَنۡہَا حِوَلاً۬ (١٠٨) قُل لَّوۡ كَانَ ٱلۡبَحۡرُ مِدَادً۬ا لِّكَلِمَـٰتِ رَبِّى لَنَفِدَ ٱلۡبَحۡرُ قَبۡلَ أَن تَنفَدَ كَلِمَـٰتُ رَبِّى وَلَوۡ جِئۡنَا بِمِثۡلِهِۦ مَدَدً۬ا (١٠٩)

 Al-Kahf 18:109
Say: Though the sea became ink for the Words of my Lord, verily the sea would be used up before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even though We brought the like thereof to help. (109)

 

کہہ دو کہ اگر سمندر میرے پروردگار کی باتوں کے (لکھنے کے) لئے سیاہی ہو تو قبل اس کے کہ میرے پروردگار کی باتیں تمام ہوں سمندر ختم ہوجائے اگرچہ ہم ویسا ہی اور (سمندر) اس کی مدد کو لائیں (۱۰۹)

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الجَاثیَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

فَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ رَبِّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَرَبِّ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ (٣٦) وَلَهُ ٱلۡكِبۡرِيَآءُ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ (٣٧)

Al-Jathiya 45:36-37
Then praise be to Allah, Lord of the heavens and Lord of the earth, the Lord of the Worlds. (36) And unto Him (alone) belongeth Majesty in the heavens and the earth, and He is the Mighty, the Wise. (37)

پس خدا ہی کو ہر طرح کی تعریف (سزاوار) ہے جو آسمانوں کا مالک اور زمین کا مالک اور تمام جہانوں کا پروردگار ہے (۳۶) اور آسمانوں اور زمین میں اُسی کے لئے بڑائی ہے۔ اور وہ غالب اور دانا ہے (۳۷)

 

 

اللہ  اکبر

 Allah is the Greatest

 

Does God Exist? 

http://www.findpk.com/zahid/Creation out of nothing.htm

 

 

End of Times...

Doomsday…is on its way!
 

Science in Quran:

http://www.findpk.com/zahid/Science_in_Quran.htm