By Zahid Ikram

 

Science in Quran :  Astronomy in Quran

 

§        The Coming Of The Universe Into Existence

§        Creation In Six Days

§        The Very Fine Tuning In The Universe

§        The Force Of Gravity And Orbital Movements

§        Orbits And The Rotating Universe

§        The Journey to the Moon

§        11 Stars Sun &  Moon

 

 

 

THE COMING OF THE UNIVERSE INTO EXISTENCE

Until the mid-20th century, the prevalent view across the world was that the universe was infinite, had existed forever and that it will continue to do so for all time. According to this view, known as the "static universe model," the universe had no end or beginning. (Please read the article: How Big is our Universe?)

In maintaining that the universe is a collection of fixed, static and unchanging substances, this view has constituted the basis of materialist philosophy and has consequently rejected the existence of a Creator. However, as science and technology progressed during the 20th century, the static universe model has been completely uprooted.

                      

We have now entered the 21st century and a new dawn is upon us. Through numerous experiments, observations and calculation conducted by some of the world's most prominent thinkers, modern physics has proven that the universe did indeed have a beginning, that it came into being from nothing in a single moment in a huge explosion called “The Big Bang”. Furthermore, it has been established that the universe is not fixed and static, as materialists still stubbornly maintain. On the contrary, it is undergoing a constant process of movement, change and expansion. These recently-established facts all act as nails in the coffin of the static universe theory. Today, all these facts are universally accepted by the scientific community.

 

The origin of the universe is described in the Quran in the following verse:

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنعَام
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

بَدِيعُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ ۥ وَلَدٌ۬ وَلَمۡ تَكُن لَّهُ ۥ صَـٰحِبَةٌ۬‌ۖ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ۬ (١٠١) ذَٲلِڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّكُمۡ‌ۖ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ خَـٰلِقُ ڪُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ فَٱعۡبُدُوهُ‌ۚ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ وَڪِيلٌ۬ (١٠٢) لَّا تُدۡرِڪُهُ ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرُ وَهُوَ يُدۡرِكُ ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرَ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱللَّطِيفُ ٱلۡخَبِيرُ (١٠٣)

Al-Anaam 6:101-103
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

(He is) the Originator of the heavens and the earth.  How can He have a child, when there is for Him no consort, when He created all things and is Aware of all things? (101) Such is Allah, your Lord. There is no God save Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him. And He taketh care of all things. (102) Vision comprehendeth Him not, but He comprehendeth (all) vision. He is the Subtile, the Aware. (103)

سورة الاٴنعَام
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

(وہی) آسمانوں اور زمین کا پیدا کرنے والا (ہے)۔ اس کے اولاد کہاں سے ہو جب کہ اس کی بیوی ہی نہیں۔ اور اس نے ہر چیز کو پیدا کیا ہے۔ اور وہ ہر چیز سے باخبر ہے (۱۰۱) یہی (اوصاف رکھنے والا) خدا تمہارا پروردگار ہے۔ اس کے سوا کوئی معبود نہیں۔ (وہی) ہر چیز کا پیداکرنے والا (ہے) تو اسی کی عبادت کرو۔ اور وہ ہر چیز کا نگراں ہے (۱۰۲) (وہ ایسا ہے کہ) نگاہیں اس کا ادراک نہیں کرسکتیں اور وہ نگاہوں کا ادراک کرسکتا ہے اور وہ بھید جاننے والا خبردار ہے (۱۰۳)

This information is in full agreement with the findings of contemporary scientists. As we stated earlier, the conclusion that astrophysics has reached today is that the entire universe, together with the dimensions of matter and time, came into existence as a result of a great explosion that occurred a long time ago. This event, known as "The Big Bang," is the catalyst for the creation of the universe from nothingness. This explosion, all parties in the scientific community agree, emanated from a single point some 15 billion years ago.

(See Harun Yahya, The Creation of the Universe, Al-Attique Publishers Inc. Canada, 2000)

Before the Big Bang, there was no such thing as matter. From a condition of non-existence in which neither matter, nor energy, nor even time existed-and which can only be described metaphysically-matter, energy, and time were all created in an instant. This fact, only recently discovered by modern physics, was announced to us in the Quran 1,400 years ago.


The sensitive sensors on board the COBE space satellite, launched by NASA in 1992, captured evidentiary remnants of the Big Bang. This discovery served as evidence for the Big Bang, which is the scientific explanation of the fact that the universe was created from nothing.

We're trained to say there was nothing before the Big Bang, when we should say that we don't know whether there was anything - or if there was, what it was.

Where from the infinite density and Heat (form of energy) came from?

We are assuming the creation of this “universe out of nothing” and relaying on the Big Bang model, Can we find out, where from the infinite density and heat came to perform a Big Bang. If we can not define this how we can find about its Creator?

(Please read the article: Creation out of Nothing)

 

سُوۡرَةُ صٓ
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَمَا خَلَقۡنَا ٱلسَّمَآءَ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَہُمَا بَـٰطِلاً۬‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ ظَنُّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ‌ۚ فَوَيۡلٌ۬ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنَ ٱلنَّارِ (٢٧)

Sad 38:27
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

And We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them in vain. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve. And woe unto those who disbelieve, from the Fire! (27)

سورة صٓ
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اور ہم نے آسمان اور زمین کو اور جو کائنات ان میں ہے اس کو خالی از مصلحت نہیں پیدا کیا۔ یہ ان کا گمان ہے جو کافر ہیں۔ سو کافروں کے لئے دوزخ کا عذاب ہے (۲۷)

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الزُّمَر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۖ يُكَوِّرُ ٱلَّيۡلَ عَلَى ٱلنَّہَارِ وَيُكَوِّرُ ٱلنَّهَارَ عَلَى ٱلَّيۡلِ‌ۖ وَسَخَّرَ ٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ‌ۖ ڪُلٌّ۬ يَجۡرِى لِأَجَلٍ۬ مُّسَمًّى‌ۗ أَلَا هُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡغَفَّـٰرُ (٥)

Az-Zumar 39:5
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth. He maketh night to succeed day, and He maketh day to succeed night, and He constraineth the sun and the moon to give service, each running on for an appointed term. Is not He the Mighty, the Forgiver? (5)

 

سورة الزُّمَر
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اسی نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو تدبیر کے ساتھ پیدا کیا ہے۔ (اور) وہی رات کو دن پر لپیٹتا ہے اور دن کو رات پر لپیٹتا ہے اور اسی نے سورج اور چاند کو بس میں کر رکھا ہے۔ سب ایک وقت مقرر تک چلتے رہیں گے۔ دیکھو وہی غالب (اور) بخشنے والا ہے (۵)

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Creation in Six Days

 

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴعرَاف
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ يُغۡشِى ٱلَّيۡلَ ٱلنَّہَارَ يَطۡلُبُهُ ۥ حَثِيثً۬ا وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ وَٱلنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَٲتِۭ بِأَمۡرِهِۦۤ‌ۗ أَلَا لَهُ ٱلۡخَلۡقُ وَٱلۡأَمۡرُ‌ۗ تَبَارَكَ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ (٥٤)

 

7:54 Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne. He covers the night with the day, [another night] chasing it rapidly; and [He created] the sun, the moon, and the stars, subjected by His command. Unquestionably, His is the creation and the command; blessed is Allah, Lord of the worlds.

 

کچھ شک نہیں کہ تمہارا پروردگار خدا ہی ہے جس نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو چھ دن میں پیدا کیا پھر عرش پر جا ٹھہرا۔ وہی رات کو دن کا لباس پہناتا ہے کہ وہ اس کے پیچھے دوڑتا چلا آتا ہے۔ اور اسی نے سورج اور چاند ستاروں کو پیدا کیا سب اس کے حکم کے مطابق کام میں لگے ہوئے ہیں۔ دیکھو سب مخلوق بھی اسی کی ہے اور حکم بھی (اسی کا ہے)۔ یہ خدا رب العالمین بڑی برکت والا ہے (۵۴)

 

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ یُونس
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ‌ۖ يُدَبِّرُ ٱلۡأَمۡرَ‌ۖ مَا مِن شَفِيعٍ إِلَّا مِنۢ بَعۡدِ إِذۡنِهِۦ‌ۚ ذَٲلِڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّڪُمۡ فَٱعۡبُدُوهُ‌ۚ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ (٣)

 

10:3 Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne, arranging the matter [of His creation]. There is no intercessor except after His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Then will you not remember?

 

تمہارا پروردگار تو خدا ہی ہے جس نے آسمان اور زمین چھ دن میں بنائے پھر عرش (تخت شاہی) پر قائم ہوا وہی ہر ایک کا انتظام کرتا ہے۔ کوئی (اس کے پاس) اس کا اذن حاصل کیے بغیر کسی کی سفارش نہیں کرسکتا، یہی خدا تمہارا پروردگار ہے تو اسی کی عبادت کرو۔ بھلا تم غور کیوں نہیں کرتے (۳)

 

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ هُود
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ وَڪَانَ عَرۡشُهُ ۥ عَلَى ٱلۡمَآءِ لِيَبۡلُوَڪُمۡ أَيُّكُمۡ أَحۡسَنُ عَمَلاً۬‌ۗ وَلَٮِٕن قُلۡتَ إِنَّكُم مَّبۡعُوثُونَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ٱلۡمَوۡتِ لَيَقُولَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُوٓاْ إِنۡ هَـٰذَآ إِلَّا سِحۡرٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬ (٧)

 

11:7 And it is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days – and His Throne had been upon water – that He might test you as to which of you is best in deed. But if you say, "Indeed, you are resurrected after death," those who disbelieve will surely say, "This is not but obvious magic."

 

اور وہی تو ہے جس نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو چھ دن میں بنایا اور (اس وقت) اس کا عرش پانی پر تھا۔ (تمہارے پیدا کرنے سے) مقصود یہ ہے کہ وہ تم کو آزمائے کہ تم میں عمل کے لحاظ سے کون بہتر ہے اور اگر تم کہو کہ تم لوگ مرنے کے بعد (زندہ کرکے) اٹھائے جاؤ گے تو کافر کہہ دیں گے کہ یہ تو کھلا جادو ہے (۷)

 

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الفُرقان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَا فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ‌ۚ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ فَسۡـَٔلۡ بِهِۦ خَبِيرً۬ا (٥٩)

25:59 He who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days and then established Himself above the Throne – the Most Merciful, so ask about Him one well informed.

 

جس نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو اور جو کچھ ان دونوں کے درمیان ہے چھ دن میں پیدا کیا پھر عرش پر جا ٹھہرا وہ (جس کا نام) رحمٰن (یعنی بڑا مہربان ہے) تو اس کا حال کسی باخبر سے دریافت کرلو (۵۹)

 

 

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ قٓ
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَا فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ۬ (٣٨)

 

50:38 And We did certainly create the heavens and earth and what is between them in six days, and there touched Us no weariness.

 

اور ہم نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو اور جو (مخلوقات) ان میں ہے سب کو چھ دن میں بنا دیا۔ اور ہم کو ذرا تکان نہیں ہوئی (۳۸)

 

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الحَدید
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ‌ۚ يَعۡلَمُ مَا يَلِجُ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَا يَخۡرُجُ مِنۡہَا وَمَا يَنزِلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَمَا يَعۡرُجُ فِيہَا‌ۖ وَهُوَ مَعَكُمۡ أَيۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ‌ۚ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ۬ (٤)

 

57:4 It is He who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne. He knows what penetrates into the earth and what emerges from it and what descends from the heaven and what ascends therein; and He is with you wherever you are. And Allah, of what you do, is Seeing.

 

وہی ہے جس نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو چھ دن میں پیدا کیا پھر عرش پر جا ٹھہرا۔ جو چیز زمین میں داخل ہوتی اور جو اس سے نکلتی ہے اور جو آسمان سے اُترتی اور جو اس کی طرف چڑھتی ہے سب اس کو معلوم ہے۔ اور تم جہاں کہیں ہو وہ تمہارے ساتھ ہے۔ اور جو کچھ تم کرتے ہو خدا اس کو دیکھ رہا ہے (۴)

 

 

 

One example of the harmony between the Quran and modern science is the subject of the age of the universe. Cosmologists estimate the age of the universe as about 14 billion years.

 

NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) project estimates the age of the universe to be:

 

(13.73 ± 0.12) × 109 years.

 

That is, the universe is about 13.73 billion years old with an uncertainty of 120 million years. However, this age is based on the assumption that the project's underlying model is correct; other methods of estimating the age of the universe could give different ages. Assuming an extra background of relativistic particles, for example, can enlarge the error bars of the WMAP constraint by one order of magnitude.

 

The Quran states that the entire universe was created in six days. These two time frames, which may seem contradictory, are actually surprisingly compatible. In fact, both these figures concerning the age of the universe are correct. In other words, the universe was created in six days, as revealed in the Quran, and this period corresponds to 15.75 billion years in the way that we experience time.

 

 

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنبیَاء
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

أَوَلَمۡ يَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ ڪَانَتَا رَتۡقً۬ا فَفَتَقۡنَـٰهُمَا‌ۖ وَجَعَلۡنَا مِنَ ٱلۡمَآءِ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ حَىٍّ‌ۖ أَفَلَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ (٣٠)

 

Al-Anbiya 21:30
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

) Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them, and we made every living thing of water? Will they not then believe? (30)

 

سورة الاٴنبیَاء
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

کیا کافروں نے نہیں دیکھا کہ آسمان اور زمین دونوں ملے ہوئے تھے تو ہم نے جدا جدا کردیا۔ اور تمام جاندار چیزیں ہم نے پانی سے بنائیں۔ پھر یہ لوگ ایمان کیوں نہیں لاتے؟ (۳۰)

 

 

In 1915 Einstein proposed that time is relative that the passage of time altered according to space, the speed of the person traveling and the force of gravity at that moment. Bearing in mind these differences in the passage of time, the period of time in which the universe was created as revealed in seven different verses of the Quran is actually highly compatible with scientists' estimations.  (Please read the article: Relativity of Time in Quran)

 

The six-day period revealed in the Quran can be thought of as six periods. Because, taking into account the relativity of time, a "day" refers only to a 24-hour period experienced on Earth under current conditions.

Elsewhere in the universe, however, at another time and under other conditions, a "day" could refer to a much longer period of time. Indeed, the word "ayyamin" in the period of six days (sittati ayyamin) in the above verses from Quran means not only "days," but also "age, period, moment, term."

 

In the first period of the universe, the passage of time took place much faster than that with which we are familiar today. The reason for this is that, at the moment of the Big Bang, our universe was compressed into a very small point. The expansion of the universe and increase in its volume ever since the moment of that explosion has extended the borders of the universe to millions of light years. Indeed, the stretching of space ever since that moment has had very important ramifications for universal time.

 

The energy at the moment of the Big Bang slowed down the flow of time 1 million million times. When the universe was created the speed of universal time was higher up to a million million times, as time is experienced today. In other words, a million million minutes on Earth is the equivalent of just one minute in universal time.

 

When a six-day period of time is calculated according to the relativity of time, it equates to six million million (six trillion) days. That is because universal time flows a million million times faster than time on Earth. Calculated in terms of years, 6 trillion days equates to approximately 16.427 billion years. This is within the estimated range for the age of the universe.

 

6,000,000,000,000 days/365.25 = 16.427104723 billion years

 

سُوۡرَةُ البَقَرَة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡحَىُّ ٱلۡقَيُّومُ‌ۚ لَا تَأۡخُذُهُ ۥ سِنَةٌ۬ وَلَا نَوۡمٌ۬‌ۚ لَّهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ مَن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يَشۡفَعُ عِندَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِهِۦ‌ۚ يَعۡلَمُ مَا بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمَا خَلۡفَهُمۡ‌ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَىۡءٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِلۡمِهِۦۤ إِلَّا بِمَا شَآءَ‌ۚ وَسِعَ كُرۡسِيُّهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ‌ۖ وَلَا يَـُٔودُهُ ۥ حِفۡظُهُمَا‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَلِىُّ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ (٢٥٥)

 

2:255 Allah, there is no god but Him, the Living, the Self-Sustaining. He is not subject to drowsiness or sleep. Everything in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him. Who can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them but they cannot grasp any of His knowledge save what He wills. His Footstool encompasses the heavens and the earth and their preservation does not tire Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent.

 

خدا (وہ معبود برحق ہے کہ) اس کے سوا کوئی عبادت کے لائق نہیں زندہ ہمیشہ رہنے والا اسے نہ اونگھ آتی ہے نہ نیند جو کچھ آسمانوں میں اور جو کچھ زمین میں ہیں سب اسی کا ہے کون ہے جو اس کی اجازت کے بغیر اس سے (کسی کی) سفارش کر سکے جو کچھ لوگوں کے روبرو ہو رہا ہے اور جو کچھ ان کے پیچھے ہوچکا ہے اسے سب معلوم ہے اور وہ اس کی معلومات میں سے کسی چیز پر دسترس حاصل نہیں کر سکتے ہاں جس قدر وہ چاہتا ہے (اسی قدر معلوم کرا دیتا ہے) اس کی بادشاہی (اور علم) آسمان اور زمین سب پر حاوی ہے اور اسے ان کی حفاظت کچھ بھی دشوار نہیں وہ بڑا عالی رتبہ اور جلیل القدر ہے (۲۵۵)

 

 

 

On the other hand, each of the six days of creation equates to very different periods, as we perceive time. The reason for this is that the speed of the passage of time declines in proportion to the expansion of the universe.

 

Ever since the Big Bang, as the size of the universe doubled, so the passage of time halved. As the universe grew, the speed at which the universe doubled increasingly slowed down. This rate of expansion is a scientific fact acknowledged the world over and described in the text book The Fundamentals of Physical Cosmology.

 

When we calculate every day of creation in terms of Earth time, the following situation emerges:

 

Looked at from the moment when time began,

 

o        The 1st day of creation (first phase) lasted 24 hours. This period, however, is the equivalent of 8 billion years in Earth terms.

 

o        The 2nd day of creation (second phase) lasted 24 hours. This, however, lasted half as long, in our terms, as the preceding day, in other words 4 billion years.

 

o        The 3rd day (third phase) lasted half as long as the second day, in other words 2 billion years.

 

o        The 4th day (fourth phase) lasted 1 billion years.

 

o        The 5th day (fifth phase) lasted 500 million years.

 

o        And the 6th day (sixth phase) lasted 250 million years.

 

Conclusion: When the six days of creation, in other words the six phases, are added together in Earth terms, the resulting figure is 15 billion 750 million years. This figure displays an enormous parallel with modern-day estimations.

 

As we have stated above, the creation of the universe began with a huge explosion. From this point, the universe has been expanding ever since. Scientists say that when the mass of the universe has reached a sufficient level, this expansion will come to an end because of gravity, causing the universe to collapse in on itself.

 

Philip Ball, "Black Crunch Jams Universal Cycle," Nature, 23 December 2002; Dr. David Whitehouse, "Universe is 'doomed to collapse'," BBC News Online, 22 October 2002

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2346907.stm  ; and Mark Schwartz, "Cosmic 'big crunch' could trigger an early demise of our universe," Stanford Report, 25 September 2002.

 

The universe is still in process of creation and it may take another 2 billion years to complete. The total time will accumulate to 15 billion 750 million years.  Or who knows the exact size of universe, there may be lots of dark matter beyond and that it is impossible to look further its "event horizon" and make sense of what lies beyond.

 

Cosmological Horizon

 

In physical cosmology, a cosmological horizon marks a limit to observability, and marks the boundary of a region that an observer cannot see into directly due to cosmological effects.

 

The existence, properties, and significance of a cosmological horizon depend on the particular cosmological model being discussed.

 

In any case, it is interesting to note that the cosmological horizon is a maximal limit of perception and not an actual boundary. Much like an individual who is unable to see the edges of the Pacific Ocean while they are floating in the middle of it; we can only see the light from areas of space within the cosmological horizon.

 

This is sometimes referred to as the “observable universe”, and it has been said that the observable universe is many orders of magnitude smaller than the greater universe that lies beyond the limits of our perception.

 

Imagine that the entire cosmological horizon is modeled by a sphere that is the diameter of a quarter. If Alan Guth's inflationary model of early era cosmology is correct, the universe that lies beyond this “quarter-sized” horizon would conservatively be a sphere as large as the Earth globe itself.

 

 

This conclusion is one of the facts revealed by 21st century science. Science has once again confirmed a fact revealed in the Quran 1,400 years ago. This harmony between the Quran and science is one of the miraculous proofs that the Quran is the revelation of Allah, the Creator, the Omniscient.

 

سُوۡرَةُ الکهف
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا لَا يَبۡغُونَ عَنۡہَا حِوَلاً۬ (١٠٨) قُل لَّوۡ كَانَ ٱلۡبَحۡرُ مِدَادً۬ا لِّكَلِمَـٰتِ رَبِّى لَنَفِدَ ٱلۡبَحۡرُ قَبۡلَ أَن تَنفَدَ كَلِمَـٰتُ رَبِّى وَلَوۡ جِئۡنَا بِمِثۡلِهِۦ مَدَدً۬ا (١٠٩)

 

Al-Kahf 18:109
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Say: Though the sea became ink for the Words of my Lord, verily the sea would be used up before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even though We brought the like thereof to help. (109)

 

کہہ دو کہ اگر سمندر میرے پروردگار کی باتوں کے (لکھنے کے) لئے سیاہی ہو تو قبل اس کے کہ میرے پروردگار کی باتیں تمام ہوں سمندر ختم ہوجائے اگرچہ ہم ویسا ہی اور (سمندر) اس کی مدد کو لائیں (۱۰۹)

 

 

Another Verse in Quran Surat Fussilat 41:9-13 also describe the creation in a different manner.

 

سُوۡرَةُ حٰمٓ السجدة / فُصّلَت
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

قُلۡ أَٮِٕنَّكُمۡ لَتَكۡفُرُونَ بِٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ فِى يَوۡمَيۡنِ وَتَجۡعَلُونَ لَهُ ۥۤ أَندَادً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ رَبُّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ (٩) وَجَعَلَ فِيہَا رَوَٲسِىَ مِن فَوۡقِهَا وَبَـٰرَكَ فِيہَا وَقَدَّرَ فِيہَآ أَقۡوَٲتَہَا فِىٓ أَرۡبَعَةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ سَوَآءً۬ لِّلسَّآٮِٕلِينَ (١٠) ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰٓ إِلَى ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَهِىَ دُخَانٌ۬ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلۡأَرۡضِ ٱئۡتِيَا طَوۡعًا أَوۡ كَرۡهً۬ا قَالَتَآ أَتَيۡنَا طَآٮِٕعِينَ (١١) فَقَضَٮٰهُنَّ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَاتٍ۬ فِى يَوۡمَيۡنِ وَأَوۡحَىٰ فِى كُلِّ سَمَآءٍ أَمۡرَهَا‌ۚ وَزَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِمَصَـٰبِيحَ وَحِفۡظً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ (١٢) فَإِنۡ أَعۡرَضُواْ فَقُلۡ أَنذَرۡتُكُمۡ صَـٰعِقَةً۬ مِّثۡلَ صَـٰعِقَةِ عَادٍ۬ وَثَمُودَ (١٣)

 

Fussilat 41:9-113
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Say (O Muhammad, unto the idolaters): Disbelieve ye verily in Him Who created the earth in two Days, and ascribe ye unto Him rivals? He (and none else) is the Lord of the Worlds. (9) He placed therein firm hills rising above it, and blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four Days, alike for (all) who ask; (10) Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said unto it and unto the earth: Come both of you, willingly or loth. They said: We come, obedient. (11) Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the nether heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower. (12) But if they turn away, then say: I warn you of a thunderbolt like the thunderbolt (which fell of old upon the tribes) of A'ad and Thamud; (13)

 

سُوۡرَةُ حٰمٓ السجدة / فُصّلَت
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

کہو کیا تم اس سے انکار کرتے ہو جس نے زمین کو دو دن میں پیدا کیا۔ اور (بتوں کو) اس کا مدمقابل بناتے ہو۔ وہی تو سارے جہان کا مالک ہے (۹) اور اسی نے زمین میں اس کے اوپر پہاڑ بنائے اور زمین میں برکت رکھی اور اس میں سب سامان معیشت مقرر کیا (سب) چار دن میں۔ (اور تمام) طلبگاروں کے لئے یکساں (۱۰) پھر آسمان کی طرف متوجہ ہوا اور وہ دھواں تھا تو اس نے اس سے اور زمین سے فرمایا کہ دونوں آؤ (خواہ) خوشی سے خواہ ناخوشی سے۔ انہوں نے کہا کہ ہم خوشی سے آتے ہیں (۱۱) پھر دو دن میں سات آسمان بنائے اور ہر آسمان میں اس (کے کام) کا حکم بھیجا اور ہم نے آسمان دنیا کو چراغوں (یعنی ستاروں) سے مزین کیا اور محفوظ رکھا۔ یہ زبردست (اور) خبردار کے (مقرر کئے ہوئے) اندازے ہیں (۱۲) پھر اگر یہ منہ پھیر لیں تو کہہ دو کہ میں تم کو ایسے چنگھاڑ (کے عذاب) سے آگاہ کرتا ہوں جیسے

عاد اور ثمود پر چنگھاڑ (کا عذاب آیا تھا) (۱۳)

 

For answering the above verse please read this verse from Surat Al-E-Imran 3:37

سُوۡرَةُ آل عِمرَان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

هُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنزَلَ عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ مِنۡهُ ءَايَـٰتٌ۬ مُّحۡكَمَـٰتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَـٰبِهَـٰتٌ۬‌ۖ فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمۡ زَيۡغٌ۬ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَـٰبَهَ مِنۡهُ ٱبۡتِغَآءَ ٱلۡفِتۡنَةِ وَٱبۡتِغَآءَ تَأۡوِيلِهِۦ‌ۗ وَمَا يَعۡلَمُ تَأۡوِيلَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُ‌ۗ وَٱلرَّٲسِخُونَ فِى ٱلۡعِلۡمِ يَقُولُونَ ءَامَنَّا بِهِۦ كُلٌّ۬ مِّنۡ عِندِ رَبِّنَا‌ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّآ أُوْلُواْ ٱلۡأَلۡبَـٰبِ (٧)

 

Al-E-Imran 3:7
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

He it is Who hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture wherein are clear revelations - they are the substance of the Book - and others (which are) allegorical. But those in whose hearts is doubt pursue, forsooth, that which is allegorical seeking (to cause) dissension by seeking to explain it. None knoweth its explanation save Allah. And those who are of sound instruction say: We believe therein; the whole is from our Lord; but only men of understanding really heed. (7)

 

سورة آل عِمرَان
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

 

وہی تو ہے جس نے تم پر کتاب نازل کی جس کی بعض آیتیں محکم ہیں (اور) وہی اصل کتاب ہیں اور بعض متشابہ ہیں تو جن لوگوں کے دلوں میں کجی ہے وہ متشابہات کا اتباع کرتے ہیں تاکہ فتنہ برپا کریں اور مراد اصلی کا پتہ لگائیں حالانکہ مراد اصلی خدا کے سوا کوئی نہیں جانتا اور جو لوگ علم میں دست گاہ کامل رکھتے ہیں وہ یہ کہتے ہیں کہ ہم ان پر ایمان لائے یہ سب ہمارے پروردگار کی طرف سے ہیں اور نصیحت تو عقل مند ہی قبول کرتے ہیں (۷)

To understand our universe please read these articles

o      Explore our Solar System

o       How BIG is the Universe?

o      Creation out of nothing…   

Age of the Universe 
There are at least 3 ways that the age of the Universe can be estimated.

o       The age of the chemical elements. 

o       The age of the oldest star clusters. 

o       The age of the oldest white dwarf stars. 

The Age of the Elements
The age of the chemical elements can be estimated using radioactive decay to determine how old a given mixture of atoms is. The most definite ages that can be determined this way are ages since the solidification of rock samples. When a rock solidifies, the chemical elements often get separated into different crystalline grains in the rock. For example, sodium and calcium are both common elements, but their chemical behaviours are quite different, so one usually finds sodium and calcium in different grains in a differentiated rock. Rubidium and strontium are heavier elements that behave chemically much like sodium and calcium. Thus rubidium and strontium are usually found in different grains in a rock. But Rb-87 decays into Sr-87 with a half-life of 47 billion years. And there is another isotope of strontium, Sr-86, which is not produced by any rubidium decay. The isotope Sr-87 is called radiogenic, because it can be produced by radioactive decay, while Sr-86 is non-radiogenic. The Sr-86 is used to determine what fraction of the Sr-87 was produced by radioactive decay. This is done by plotting the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio versus the Rb-87/Sr-86 ratio. When a rock is first formed, the different grains have a wide range of Rb-87/Sr-86 ratios, but the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio is the same in all grains because the chemical processes leading to differentiated grains do not separate isotopes. After the rock has been solid for several billion years, a fraction of the Rb-87 will have decayed into Sr-87. Then the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio will be larger in grains with a large Rb-87/Sr-86 ratio. Do a linear fit of 

Sr-87/Sr-86 = a + b*(Rb-87/Sr-86)

and then the slope term is given by 
b = 2x - 1

with x being the number of half-lives that the rock has been solid. See the talk.origins isochrone FAQ for more on radioactive dating. 

When applied to rocks on the surface of the Earth, the oldest rocks are about 3.8 billion years old. When applied to meteorites, the oldest are 4.56 billion years old. This very well determined age is the age of the Solar System. See the talk.origins age of the Earth FAQ for more on the age of the solar system. 

When applied to a mixed together and evolving system like the gas in the Milky Way, no great precision is possible. One problem is that there is no chemical separation into grains of different crystals, so the absolute values of the isotope ratios have to be used instead of the slopes of a linear fit. This requires that we know precisely how much of each isotope was originally present, so an accurate model for element production is needed. One isotope pair that has been used is rhenium and osmium: in particular Re-187 which decays into Os-187 with a half-life of 40 billion years. It looks like 15% of the original Re-187 has decayed, which leads to an age of 8-11 billion years. But this is just the mean formation age of the stuff in the Solar System, and no rhenium or osmium has been made for the last 4.56 billion years. Thus to use this age to determine the age of the Universe, a model of when the elements were made is needed. If all the elements were made in a burst soon after the Big Bang, then the age of the Universe would be to = 8-11 billion years. But if the elements are made continuously at a constant rate, then the mean age of stuff in the Solar System is 

(to + tSS)/2 = 8-11 Gyr

which we can solve for the age of the Universe giving 
to = 11.5-18 Gyr

Allah The Allmighty says :

Surat al-Hajj  22:47

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Truly, a day in the sight of your Lord is like a thousand years of your reckoning.

 

سُوۡرَةُ الحَجّ
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

 

اور بےشک تمہارے پروردگار کے نزدیک ایک روز تمہارے حساب کے رو سے ہزار برس کے برابر ہے (۴۷)

 

 

 

Surat al-Ma'arij 70:4

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

The angels and the spirit ascend to Him in a day the measure of which is like fifty thousand years.

 

سُوۡرَةُ المعَارج
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

 

جس کی طرف روح (الامین) اور فرشتے چڑھتے ہیں (اور) اس روز (نازل ہوگا) جس کا اندازہ پچاس ہزار برس کا ہوگا (۴)

In this verse of the Sura 'The way of Ascent' ( it is the Way which take the Angels from the Earth to the Heaven after having executed the duties necessary for the Life of our Planet and the Cosmos. We can note that Allah doesn't say "fifty thousand   years of what you number" because the day in question in this verse is a time measure of a Gods day (which each day is 1000 years in our reckoning) and this day is the age of the Universe which all events of our life from heaven to earth ascend to Him.

Let's convert these God's Years in our norms :

50,000 * 365.2422 (days in human year) = 18,262,110   Allah's Days.

One Day by Allah is corresponding 1000 years of our reckoning, therefore the Age of the Universe is :

18,262,110 * 1,000 = 18,262,110,000 years, that's to say that the age of the Universe is around 18, 1/4 Billions years. This number corresponds exactly of the above article. After more than 14 centuries, Science and particularly Professor Jean-Claude Batelere of the "College de France" state that it is now certitude that the Universe is 18 billions years old.

 

THE JOURNEY TO THE MOON

سُوۡرَةُ الانشقاق
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَٱلۡقَمَرِ إِذَا ٱتَّسَقَ (١٨) لَتَرۡكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ۬ (١٩) فَمَا لَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ (٢٠)

Al-Inshiqaq 84:18-20
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

And [I swear by] the moon when it is full, you will mount up stage by stage! What is the matter with them, that they have no faith?

سورة الانشقاق
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اور چاند کی (قسم) جب کامل ہو جائے (۱۸) کہ تم درجہ بدرجہ چڑھو گے (۱۹) تو ان لوگوں کو کیا ہوا ہے کہ ایمان نہیں لاتے(۲۰)

After swearing by the Moon, in the above verses Allah said that people will mount up stage by stage. The term tarkabunna comes from the verb rakiba, (to mount, walk on a path, follow, embark upon, set about, participate, or rule). In the light of these meanings, it is very likely that the expression "you will mount up stage by stage" refers to a spacecraft to be boarded.

 

سُوۡرَةُ یُوسُف
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَڪَأَيِّن مِّنۡ ءَايَةٍ۬ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ يَمُرُّونَ عَلَيۡہَا وَهُمۡ عَنۡہَا مُعۡرِضُونَ (١٠٥) وَمَا يُؤۡمِنُ أَڪۡثَرُهُم بِٱللَّهِ إِلَّا وَهُم مُّشۡرِكُونَ (١٠٦)

Yusuf 12:105-106
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

How many a portent is there in the heavens and the earth which they pass by with face averted! (105) And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners (unto Him). (106)

سورة یُوسُف
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اور آسمان و زمین میں بہت سی نشانیاں ہیں جن پر یہ گزرتے ہیں اور ان سے اعراض کرتے ہیں (۱۰۵) اور یہ اکثر خدا پر ایمان نہیں رکھتے۔ مگر (اس کے ساتھ) شرک کرتے ہیں (۱۰۶)

Indeed, the astronauts' spacecraft pass through each layer of the atmosphere one by one, and then begin to pass through the Moon's gravitational field. Thus, the Moon is reached by moving through individual layers. In addition, the swearing by the Moon in Surat al-Inshiqaq 18 further strengthens this emphasis, meaning that the verse may well be a sign that humanity will travel to the Moon. (Allah knows best.)

The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. It was the fifth human spaceflight of Project Apollo and the third human voyage to the Moon. Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the Moon, while Collins orbited above.

Shortly after landing, before preparations began for the EVA, Aldrin broadcast that:
This is the LM pilot. I'd like to take this opportunity to ask every person listening in, whoever and wherever they may be, to pause for a moment and contemplate the events of the past few hours and to give thanks in his or her own way.

He then took Communion privately. At this time NASA was still fighting a lawsuit brought by atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair (who had objected to the Apollo 8 crew reading from the Book of Genesis) which demanded that their astronauts refrain from religious activities while in space. As such, Aldrin chose to refrain from directly mentioning this. He had kept the plan quiet (not even mentioning it to his wife) and did not reveal it publicly for several years. (NOTE: Buzz Aldrin was an elder at Webster Presbyterian Church in Webster, TX. His communion kit was prepared by the pastor of the church, the Rev. Dean Woodruff. Aldrin described communion on the moon and the involvement of his church and pastor in the October, 1970 edition of Guideposts magazine and in his book "Return to Earth." Webster Presbyterian possesses the chalice used on the moon, and commemorates the Lunar Communion each year on the Sunday closest to July 20.)

 

سُوۡرَةُ المجَادلة
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

(٦) أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعۡلَمُ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ مَا يَڪُونُ مِن نَّجۡوَىٰ ثَلَـٰثَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ رَابِعُهُمۡ وَلَا خَمۡسَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ سَادِسُہُمۡ وَلَآ أَدۡنَىٰ مِن ذَٲلِكَ وَلَآ أَڪۡثَرَ إِلَّا هُوَ مَعَهُمۡ أَيۡنَ مَا كَانُواْ‌ۖ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُواْ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ (٧)

Al-Mujadila 58:7
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Hast thou not seen that Allah knoweth all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth? There is no secret conference of three but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less than that or more but He is with them wheresoever they may be; and afterward, on the Day of Resurrection, He will inform them of what they did. Lo! Allah is Knower of all things. (7)

سورة المجَادلة
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

کیا تم کو معلوم نہیں کہ جو کچھ آسمانوں میں ہے اور جو کچھ زمین میں ہے خدا کو سب معلوم ہے۔ (کسی جگہ) تین (شخصوں) کا کانوں میں صلاح ومشورہ نہیں ہوتا مگر وہ ان میں چوتھا ہوتا ہے اور نہ کہیں پانچ کا مگر وہ ان میں چھٹا ہوتا ہے اور نہ اس سے کم یا زیادہ مگر وہ ان کے ساتھ ہوتا ہے خواہ وہ کہیں ہوں۔ پھر جو جو کام یہ کرتے رہے ہیں قیامت کے دن وہ (ایک ایک) ان کو بتائے گا۔ بےشک خدا ہر چیز سے واقف ہے (۷)

 

 

سُوۡرَةُ الرَّحمٰن
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

(٣٢) يَـٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ إِنِ ٱسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ أَن تَنفُذُواْ مِنۡ أَقۡطَارِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنفُذُواْ‌ۚ لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلۡطَـٰنٍ۬ (٣٣)

Ar-Rahman
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

O company of jinn and men, if ye have power to penetrate (all) regions of the heavens and the earth, then penetrate (them)! Ye will never penetrate them save with (Our) sanction. (33)

سورة الرَّحمٰن
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اے گروہِ جن وانس اگر تمہیں قدرت ہو کہ آسمان اور زمین کے کناروں سے نکل جاؤ تو نکل جاؤ۔ اور زور کے سوا تم نکل سکنے ہی کے نہیں (۳۳)

 

Our entire Solar System is flying through space, orbiting the center of the galaxy at the incredible speed of over 900,000 km/hr (560,000 miles/hr). It takes 225 million -250 million years for its one cycle or rotation.   So, even while you think you are standing still on Earth, you are moving at very high speeds in three dimensions, (1st its rotation on its own axis, 2nd its orbital motion around sun and 3rd all solar system orbiting the center of the galaxy).  It’s a good thing we have Earth’s gravity holding onto us.  In fact, all the stars you see in the sky are orbiting the Milky Way at similar speeds, like a high-speed merry-go-round in space.

Can we fly out of our galaxy and beat the speed of 900,000 km/hr or 250 km/sec? may be in future but…

Please remember from the prior journey in past that the fastest speed ever achieved by human beings was 11 km/sec, the speed attained by the Apollo spacecraft.

 

Well, how many days, weeks, months or years would it take Apollo (or you) to reach the nearest star to Earth (aside from our own sun)?  To calculate it, we first have to determine how far away the star is from us in kilometers.  That’s easy.  Proxima Centauri is about 4.23 LY away, and 1 LY = 9.46 x 1012 km.  So, the star is 4.23 x (9.46 x 1012) = 4.0 x 1013 km (40 trillion kilometers) (in miles, that’s 24.7 trillion miles (2.5 x 1013 miles)).  Now, just divide the distance to the star in km by 11 km/sec (the speed of Apollo), and you’ll find the time it would take to get there in seconds.  Convert that to years (I’ll leave that to you). 

 

One (1) ly = 9.46 x 1012 km, or 5.87 x 1012 miles.  That is 9.46 trillion km (5.87 trillion miles).  Obviously, that is a stupendous number.  Written out, it is 9,460,000,000,000 km or 5,870,000,000,000 mi. 

You should have discovered that to reach the nearest star to us at the fastest speed ever achieved by people, would take you … over 115,000 years!  That is almost 6,000 generations … of your children, and grandchildren, and great grandchildren, and their children’s children’s children’s children … watching out your ship’s front window … living and dying … century after century, millennia after millennia.  115,000 years … just to reach the closest star to us.  That is 20 times longer than all of human recorded history, back to the days of our most ancient civilizations … 20 times longer!  If you left Earth at the time of the ancient Greeks 4,000 years ago, you would only be less than 4% of the way to the star by now.

Can you think to fly out of our Milky Way Galaxy?
A galaxy is a giant rotating clump of stars, gas and space dust in space.  When we say, “giant”, we mean ColossalThe Milky Way is the name of the galaxy containing our Solar System.  That haze in front of you is stars … billions of individual stars and gas and dust and space rocks.  Their mutual gravitational attraction is pulling them (and us) together. 

 

The Milky Way galaxy in fact, is estimated to have about 500 billion (500,000,000,000) stars in it. Our solar system is within red mark in the above picture.  Please read the article “Our Solar System” and “How big is the Universe?

 

Remember that each star is a very long way from every other one, so putting 500 billion stars together in a galaxy takes a LOT of room. 

The Milky Way, for example, is at least 100,000 light years in diameter (that’s 950,000,000,000,000,000,000 km)

If traveling at the fastest speed ever reached by humans, it would take you over 2.7 BILLION YEARS to cross our galaxy from one side to another.  By car, it would take you … 1,100 TRILLION years!  God Almighty is great. Who can think even to cross the milky way?

Please consider what this really means. 

 

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The Very Fine Tuning In The Universe

سُوۡرَةُ الفُرقان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱلَّذِى لَهُ ۥ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَمۡ يَتَّخِذۡ وَلَدً۬ا وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ شَرِيكٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡمُلۡكِ وَخَلَقَ ڪُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬ فَقَدَّرَهُ ۥ تَقۡدِيرً۬ا (٢)

He to Whom the kingdom of the heavens and the earth belongs. He does not have a son and He has no partner in the Kingdom. He created everything and determined it most exactly. (Quran, 25:2)

وہی کہ آسمان اور زمین کی بادشاہی اسی کی ہے اور جس نے (کسی کو) بیٹا نہیں بنایا اور جس کا بادشاہی میں کوئی شریک نہیں اور جس نے ہر چیز کو پیدا کیا اور پھر اس کا ایک اندازہ ٹھہرایا (۲)

سُوۡرَةُ الحِجر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَإِن مِّن شَىۡءٍ إِلَّا عِندَنَا خَزَآٮِٕنُهُ ۥ وَمَا نُنَزِّلُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا بِقَدَرٍ۬ مَّعۡلُومٍ۬ (٢١)

And there is not a thing but with Us are the stores thereof. And we send it not down save in appointed measure. 15:21

اور ہمارے ہاں ہر چیز کے خزانے ہیں اور ہم ان کو بمقدار مناسب اُتارتے رہتے ہیں (۲۱)

 

Materialist philosophy emerged with the claim that all the systems in nature and the universe were like machines that functioned on their own, that the flawless order and balance within them were the work of chance. However, today, the false nature of materialism and of Darwinism, its so-called scientific foundation, has been scientifically demonstrated. (See Harun Yahya, The Evolution Deceit, 8th ed., Taha Publishers, 2004 and Darwinism Refuted, Goodword Books, 2003.)

The scientific discoveries of the 20th century that followed swiftly, one after the other, in the fields of astrophysics and biology have proved that life and the universe were created. As the theses of Darwinism collapsed, the Big Bang theory has shown that the universe was created from nothing. Discoveries have revealed that there is a great design and fine-tuning in the material world and this has categorically demonstrated the groundless nature of the claims of materialism.

Considering the conditions necessary for life, we see that only the Earth meets these particular conditions. For an environment suitable for life, there are innumerable conditions taking place simultaneously and unceasingly all around us. There are 500 billion galaxies, each with-on average-hundred billion stars. The Milky Way galaxy in fact, is estimated to have about 500 billion (500,000,000,000) stars in it. (How big is our universe?)

Remember that each star is a very long way from every other one, so putting 500 billion stars together in a galaxy takes a LOT of room. The Milky Way, for example, is at least 100,000 light years in diameter (that’s 950,000,000,000,000,000,000 km). If traveling at the fastest speed ever reached by humans, it would take you over 2.7 BILLION YEARS to cross our galaxy from one side to another (by Apollo at the speed of 11 KM/S).  God Almighty is great. Please consider what this really means. 

In all the galaxies, there are perhaps as many planets as stars. (Carl Sagan, Cosmos (Avenel, NJ: Wings Books: April 1983), 5-7) In the face of such overpowering numbers, one can better comprehend the significance of the formation of such an exceptional environment on the Earth.

 

o        From the force of the Big Bang explosion to the physical values of atoms,

o        From the levels of the four basic forces to the chemical processes in the stars,

o        From the type of light emitted by the Sun to the level of viscosity of water,

o        From the distance of the Moon to the Earth to the level of gases in the atmosphere,

o        From the Earth's distance from the Sun to its angle of tilt to its orbit, and

o        From the speed at which the Earth revolves around its own axis to the functions of the oceans and mountains on the Earth:

سُوۡرَةُ حٰمٓ السجدة / فُصّلَت
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

وَجَعَلَ فِيہَا رَوَٲسِىَ مِن فَوۡقِهَا وَبَـٰرَكَ فِيہَا وَقَدَّرَ فِيہَآ أَقۡوَٲتَہَا فِىٓ أَرۡبَعَةِ أَيَّامٍ۬ سَوَآءً۬ لِّلسَّآٮِٕلِينَ (١٠) ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰٓ إِلَى ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَهِىَ دُخَانٌ۬ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلۡأَرۡضِ ٱئۡتِيَا طَوۡعًا أَوۡ كَرۡهً۬ا قَالَتَآ أَتَيۡنَا طَآٮِٕعِينَ (١١) فَقَضَٮٰهُنَّ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَاتٍ۬ فِى يَوۡمَيۡنِ وَأَوۡحَىٰ فِى كُلِّ سَمَآءٍ أَمۡرَهَا‌ۚ وَزَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِمَصَـٰبِيحَ وَحِفۡظً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ (١٢)

 

Fussilat
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

He placed therein firm hills rising above it, and blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four Days, alike for (all) who ask; (10) Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said unto it and unto the earth: Come both of you, willingly or loth. They said: We come, obedient. (11) Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the nether heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower. (12)

 

سُوۡرَةُ حٰمٓ السجدة / فُصّلَت
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

اور اسی نے زمین میں اس کے اوپر پہاڑ بنائے اور زمین میں برکت رکھی اور اس میں سب سامان معیشت مقرر کیا (سب) چار دن میں۔ (اور تمام) طلبگاروں کے لئے یکساں (۱۰) پھر آسمان کی طرف متوجہ ہوا اور وہ دھواں تھا تو اس نے اس سے اور زمین سے فرمایا کہ دونوں آؤ (خواہ) خوشی سے خواہ ناخوشی سے۔ انہوں نے کہا کہ ہم خوشی سے آتے ہیں (۱۱) پھر دو دن میں سات آسمان بنائے اور ہر آسمان میں اس (کے کام) کا حکم بھیجا اور ہم نے آسمان دنیا کو چراغوں (یعنی ستاروں) سے مزین کیا اورمحفوظ رکھا۔ یہ زبردست (اور) خبردار کے (مقرر کئے ہوئے) اندازے ہیں (۱۲)

 

Every single detail is ideally suited to our lives. Today, the world of science describes these features by means of the concepts of the "Anthropic Principle" and "Fine-Tuning." These concepts summarize the way that the universe is not an aimless, uncontrolled, chance collection of matter but that it has a purpose directed towards human life and has been designed with the greatest precision.

The word "tibaqan," meaning "in harmony," is used in Surat al-Mulk 3

سُوۡرَةُ المُلک
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَٲتٍ۬ طِبَاقً۬ا‌ۖ مَّا تَرَىٰ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ مِن تَفَـٰوُتٍ۬‌ۖ فَٱرۡجِعِ ٱلۡبَصَرَ هَلۡ تَرَىٰ مِن فُطُورٍ۬ (٣) ثُمَّ ٱرۡجِعِ ٱلۡبَصَرَ كَرَّتَيۡنِ يَنقَلِبۡ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَصَرُ خَاسِئً۬ا وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ۬ (٤)

He Who created the seven heavens in layers. You will not find any flaw in the creation of the All-Merciful. Look again-do you see any gaps? Then look again and again. Your sight will return to you dazzled and exhausted! (Quran, 67:3-4)

اس نے سات آسمان اوپر تلے بنائے۔ (اے دیکھنے والے) کیا تو (خدا) رحمٰن کی آفرنیش میں کچھ نقص دیکھتا ہے؟ ذرا آنکھ اٹھا کر دیکھ بھلا تجھ کو (آسمان میں) کوئی شکاف نظر آتا ہے؟ (۳)

and Surah Nuh 15.

سُوۡرَةُ نُوح
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

أَلَمۡ تَرَوۡاْ كَيۡفَ خَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ سَبۡعَ سَمَـٰوَٲتٍ۬ طِبَاقً۬ا (١٥)

Do you not see how He created seven heavens in layers? (Quran, 71:15)

کیا تم نے نہیں دیکھا کہ خدا نے سات آسمان کیسے اوپر تلے بنائے ہیں (۱۵)

Furthermore, Allah also reveals in Surat al-Mulk with the word "tafawutin, تَفَـٰوُتٍ۬" meaning "disagreement, violation, non-conformity, disorder, opposite," that those who seek disharmony will fail to find it.

The term "fine-tuning," which began to be used towards the end of the 20th century, represents this truth revealed in the verses. Over the last quarter-century or so, a great many scientists, intellectuals and writers have shown that the universe is not a collection of coincidences. On the contrary, it has an extraordinary design and order ideally suited to human life in its every detail. (See Harun Yahya, The Creation of the Universe, Al-Attique Publishers, November 2002 and A Chain of Miracles, Global Publishing, May 2004.) Many features in the universe clearly show that the universe has been specially designed to support life. The physicist Dr. Karl Giberson expresses this fact thus:

In the 1960s, some physicists observed that our universe appears to have been fine-tuned for the existence of human life. Karl Giberson, “The Anthropic Principle,” Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 9 (1997).

The British astrophysicist Professor George F. Ellis refers to this fine-tuning in these terms:

Amazing fine tuning occurs in the laws that make this [complexity] possible. Realization of the complexity of what is accomplished makes it very difficult not to use the word "miraculous" without taking a stand as to the ontological status of the word. George F. Ellis, "The Anthropic Principle: Laws and Environments,” The Anthropic Principle, F. Bertola and U. Curi (New York: Cambridge University Press: 1993), 30.

سُوۡرَةُ آل عِمرَان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُرۡجَعُ ٱلۡأُمُورُ (١٠٩)

Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth belongs to Allah. All matters return to Allah. (Quran, 3:109)

اور جو کچھ آسمانوں میں اور جو کچھ زمین میں ہے سب خدا ہی کا ہے اور سب کاموں کا رجوع (اور انجام) خدا ہی کی طرف ہے (۱۰۹)

The speed of the Big Bang explosion:

The balances established with the Big Bang, the instantaneous formation of the universe, are one of the proofs that the universe did not come into being by chance. According to the well-known Adelaide University professor of mathematical physics Paul Davies:

If the rate of expansion that took place following the Big Bang had been just one in a billion billion parts different (1/1018), the universe could not have come into being.

Paul Davies, Superforce: The Search for a Grand Unified Theory of Nature, 1984, 184.

In his book A Brief History of Time, Stephen Hawking recognizes this extraordinary precision in the universe's rate of expansion:

If the rate of expansion one second after the big bang had been smaller by even one part in a hundred thousand million million, the universe would have re-collapsed before it ever reached its present size.

Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time (London: Bantam Press: 1988), 121-125.

سُوۡرَةُ الحِجر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَإِن مِّن شَىۡءٍ إِلَّا عِندَنَا خَزَآٮِٕنُهُ ۥ وَمَا نُنَزِّلُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا بِقَدَرٍ۬ مَّعۡلُومٍ۬ (٢١)

And there is not a thing but with Us are the stores thereof. And we send it not down save in appointed measure. 15:21

اور ہمارے ہاں ہر چیز کے خزانے ہیں اور ہم ان کو بمقدار مناسب اُتارتے رہتے ہیں (۲۱)

The Four Forces:

All physical motion in the universe comes about thanks to the interaction and equilibrium of the four forces recognized by modern physics:

o        Gravity,

o        Electromagnetic force,

o        Strong nuclear force and

o        Weak nuclear force.

These forces possess extraordinarily different values to one another. Michael Denton, the famous molecular biologist, describes the extraordinary equilibrium among these forces thus:

If, for example, the gravitational force was a trillion times stronger, then the universe would be far smaller and its life history far shorter. An average star would have a mass a trillion times less than the sun and a life span of about one year.

On the other hand, if gravity had been less powerful, no stars or galaxies would have ever formed. The other relationships and values are no less critical.

If the strong force had been just slightly weaker, the only element that would be stable would be hydrogen. No other atoms could exist.

If it had been slightly stronger in relation to electromagnetism, then an atomic nucleus consisting of only two protons would be a stable feature of the universe-which would mean there would be no hydrogen, and if any stars or galaxies evolved, they would be very different from the way they are. Clearly, if these various forces and constants did not have precisely the values they do, there would be no stars, no supernovae, no planets, no atoms, no life.

Michael Denton, Nature's Destiny: How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe (New York: The Free Press: 1998), 12-13.

The Distances between Celestial Bodies:

The distribution of celestial bodies in space and the enormous spaces between them are essential to the existence of life on Earth. The distances between celestial bodies have been set out in a calculation compatible with a great many powerful universal forces in such a way as to support life on Earth. In his book Nature's Destiny, Michael Denton describes the distance between supernovae and stars:

The distances between supernovae and indeed between all stars is critical for other reasons. The distance between stars in our galaxy is about 30 million miles. If this distance was much less, planetary orbits would be destabilized. If it was much more, then the debris thrown out by a supernova would be so diffusely distributed that planetary systems like our own would in all probability never form. If the cosmos is to be a home for life, then the flickering of the supernovae must occur at a very precise rate and the average distance between them, and indeed between all stars, must be very close to the actual observed figure.

Ibid., 11.

Attention is drawn in this verses to the measure and harmony in Allah's creation. The word "taqdeeran, تَقۡدِيرً۬ا " meaning "to design, measure, create by measuring," is employed in Quran such as Surat al-Furqan 25:2

سُوۡرَةُ الفُرقان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٱلَّذِى لَهُ ۥ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَمۡ يَتَّخِذۡ وَلَدً۬ا وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ شَرِيكٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡمُلۡكِ وَخَلَقَ ڪُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬ فَقَدَّرَهُ ۥ تَقۡدِيرً۬ا (٢)

He to Whom the kingdom of the heavens and the earth belongs. He does not have a son and He has no partner in the Kingdom. He created everything and determined it most exactly. (Quran, 25:2)

وہی کہ آسمان اور زمین کی بادشاہی اسی کی ہے اور جس نے (کسی کو) بیٹا نہیں بنایا اور جس کا بادشاہی میں کوئی شریک نہیں اور جس نے ہر چیز کو پیدا کیا اور پھر اس کا ایک اندازہ ٹھہرایا (۲)

 

Gravity:

o        If gravity were stronger, excessive ammonia and methane would collect in the Earth's atmosphere, which would have a most damaging effect on life.

o        If it were weaker, the Earth's atmosphere would lose excessive quantities of water, making life impossible.

The Earth's Distance from the Sun:

o        If this were any greater, the planet would grow very cold, the water cycle in the atmosphere would be affected, and the planet would enter an ice-age.

o        If the Earth were any closer to the Sun, plants would burn up, the water cycle in the Earth's atmosphere would be irreparably damaged, and life would become impossible.

The Thickness of the Earth's Crust:

o        If the crust were any thicker, then an excessive amount of oxygen would be transferred to it from the atmosphere.

o        If it were any thinner, the resulting amount of volcanic activity would make life impossible.

The Speed at which the Earth Revolves:

o        If this were any slower, the temperature difference between day and night would grow enormously.

o        If it were any faster, then atmospheric winds would reach enormous speeds, and cyclones and storms would make life impossible.

The Earth's Magnetic Field:

o        If this were any more powerful, very strong electromagnetic storms would arise.

o        If it were any weaker, then the Earth would lose its protection against the harmful particles given off by the Sun and known as solar winds. Both situations would make life impossible.

Al-Anbiya 21:32-33
And we have made the sky a roof withheld (from them). Yet they turn away from its portents. (32)

اور آسمان کو محفوظ چھت بنایا۔ اس پر بھی وہ ہماری نشانیوں سے منہ پھیر رہے ہیں (۳۲)

 

The Albedo Effect:

Ratio between the amount of light the Earth reflects and the amount of light that is absorbed:

o        If this were any greater, an ice-age would rapidly result.

o        If it were any less, the greenhouse effect would lead to excessive warming. The Earth would first be flooded with the melting of the glaciers, and would then burn up.

The Proportion of Oxygen and Nitrogen in the Atmosphere:

o        If this were any greater, vital functions would be adversely accelerated.

o        If it were any less, vital functions would adversely slow down.

The Proportion of Carbon Dioxide and Water in the Atmosphere:

o        If this were any greater, the atmosphere would overheat.

o        If it were any less, the temperature of the atmosphere would fall.

سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنبیَاء
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

أَوَلَمۡ يَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ ڪَانَتَا رَتۡقً۬ا فَفَتَقۡنَـٰهُمَا‌ۖ وَجَعَلۡنَا مِنَ ٱلۡمَآءِ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ حَىٍّ‌ۖ أَفَلَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ (٣٠) وَجَعَلۡنَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ رَوَٲسِىَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِهِمۡ وَجَعَلۡنَا فِيہَا فِجَاجً۬ا سُبُلاً۬ لَّعَلَّهُمۡ يَہۡتَدُونَ (٣١) وَجَعَلۡنَا ٱلسَّمَآءَ سَقۡفً۬ا مَّحۡفُوظً۬ا‌ۖ وَهُمۡ عَنۡ ءَايَـٰتِہَا مُعۡرِضُونَ (٣٢) وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلَّيۡلَ وَٱلنَّہَارَ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ‌ۖ كُلٌّ۬ فِى فَلَكٍ۬ يَسۡبَحُونَ (٣٣)

 

Al-Anbiya 21:30-33
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them, and we made every living thing of water? Will they not then believe? (30) And We have placed in the earth firm hills lest it quake with them, and We have placed therein ravines as roads that haply they may find their way. (31) And we have made the sky a roof withheld (from them). Yet they turn away from its portents. (32) And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit. (33)

کیا کافروں نے نہیں دیکھا کہ آسمان اور زمین دونوں ملے ہوئے تھے تو ہم نے جدا جدا کردیا۔ اور تمام جاندار چیزیں ہم نے پانی سے بنائیں۔ پھر یہ لوگ ایمان کیوں نہیں لاتے؟ (۳۰) اور ہم نے زمین میں پہاڑ بنائے تاکہ لوگوں (کے بوجھ) سے ہلنے (اور جھکنے) نہ لگے اور اس میں کشادہ راستے بنائے تاکہ لوگ ان پر چلیں (۳۱) اور آسمان کو محفوظ چھت بنایا۔ اس پر بھی وہ ہماری نشانیوں سے منہ پھیر رہے ہیں (۳۲) اور وہی تو ہے جس نے رات اور دن اور سورج اور چاند کو بنایا۔ سب آسمان میں تیر رہے ہیں (۳۳)

The Thickness of the Ozone Layer:

o        If this were any greater, the Earth's temperature would fall enormously.

o        If it were any less, the Earth would overheat and be defenseless against the harmful ultraviolet rays emitted by the Sun.

Seismic Activity (Earthquakes):

o        If this were any greater, there would be constant upheaval for living things.

o        If it were any less, the nutrients at the sea bottom would fail to spread into the water. This would have a damaging effect on life in the seas and oceans and all living things on Earth.

The Earth's Angle of Tilt:

The Earth has a 23 degree angle of inclination to its orbit. It is this inclination that gives rise to the seasons. If this angle was any greater or any less than it is now, the temperature difference between the seasons would reach extreme dimensions, with unbearably hot summers and bitterly cold winters.

The Size of the Sun:

A smaller star than the Sun would mean the Earth would freeze and a larger star would lead to its burning up.

Ar-Rahman
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful


The Beneficent (1) Hath made known the Qur'an. (2) He hath created man. (3) He hath taught him utterance. (4) The sun and the moon are made punctual. (5) The stars and the trees adore. (6) And the sky He hath uplifted; and He hath set the measure, (7) That ye exceed not the measure, (8

سورة الرَّحمٰن
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

 

(خدا جو) نہایت مہربان (۱) اسی نے قرآن کی تعلیم فرمائی (۲) اسی نے انسان کو پیدا کیا (۳) اسی نے اس کو بولنا سکھایا (۴) سورج اور چاند ایک حساب مقرر سے چل رہے ہیں (۵) اور بوٹیاں اور درخت سجدہ کر رہے ہیں (۶)اور اسی نے آسمان کو بلند کیا اور ترازو قائم کی (۷)

 

The Attraction between the Earth and the Moon:

o        If this were any greater, the powerful attraction of the Moon would have extremely serious effects on atmospheric conditions, the speed at which the Earth revolves around its own axis and on the ocean tides.

o        If it were any less, this would lead to extreme climate changes.

The Distance between the Earth and the Moon:

o        If they were just a little closer, the Moon would crash into the Earth.

o        If they were any further, the Moon would become lost in space.

o        If they were even a little closer, the Moon's effect on the Earth's tides would reach dangerous dimensions. Ocean waves would inundate low-lying areas. The friction emerging as a result of this would raise the temperature of the oceans and the sensitive temperature balance essential to life on Earth would disappear.

o        If they were even a little further away, the tides would decrease, leading the oceans to be less mobile. Immobile water would endanger life in the seas, and the level of the oxygen we breathe would be endangered.

www.pathlights.com/ce_encyclopedia/01-ma10.htm#Elemental Forces

 

سُوۡرَةُ آل عِمرَان
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَلِلَّهِ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ (١٨٩) إِنَّ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱخۡتِلَـٰفِ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّہَارِ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَلۡبَـٰبِ (١٩٠)

The kingdom of the heavens and earth belongs to Allah. Allah has power over all things. In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are  Signs for people with intelligence.
(Quran, 3:189-190)

اور آسمانوں اور زمین کی بادشاہی خدا ہی کو ہے اور خدا ہر چیز پر قادر ہے (۱۸۹) بے شک آسمانوں اور زمین کی پیدائش اور رات اور دن کے بدل بدل کے آنے جانے میں عقل والوں کے لیے نشانیاں ہیں (۱۹۰)

The Temperature of the Earth and Carbon-Based Life:

The existence of carbon, the basis of all life, depends on the temperature remaining within specific limits. Carbon is an essential substance for organic molecules such as amino-acid, nucleic acid and protein: These constitute the basis of life. For that reason, life can only be carbon-based. Given this, the existing temperature needs to be no lower than -20 degrees and no higher than 120 degrees Celsius. These are just the temperature limits on Earth.

These are just a few of the exceedingly sensitive balances which are essential for life on Earth to have emerged and to survive. Yet even these are sufficient to definitively reveal that the Earth and the universe could not have come into being as the result of a number of consecutive coincidences. The concepts of "fine-tuning" and the "anthropic principle" that began to be employed in the 20th century are further evidence of Allah's creation. The harmony and proportion therein were described with magnificent accuracy fourteen centuries ago in the Quran.

 

THE FORCE OF GRAVITY AND ORBITAL MOVEMENTS

سُوۡرَةُ التّکویر
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

فَلَآ أُقۡسِمُ بِٱلۡخُنَّسِ (١٥) ٱلۡجَوَارِ ٱلۡكُنَّسِ (١٦)

At-Takwir 81: 15-16
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Oh, but I swear by the planets-that recede, that ride their course [and] hide themselves. (The stars which rise and set,)

ہم کو ان ستاروں کی قسم جو پیچھے ہٹ جاتے ہیں (۱۵) (اور) جو سیر کرتے اور غائب ہو جاتے ہیں (۱۶)

The word "khunnas" in Surat at-Takwir 15 bears such meanings as shrinking and cowering, retracting and turning back. The Arabic expression translated as "hide themselves" in the 16th verse is "kunnas." The word "kunnas" is the plural form of "kanis" and refers to a specific path: entering a nest, the home of a body in motion or things entering their homes and hiding there. Again in verse 16, the word "aljawari," the plural form of the word "jariya" which means one that moves and flows, is translated as "that ride their course." Bearing in mind the meaning of these words, it is very possible that these verses refer to the gravitational forces of the planets and their movements around their orbits.

These words in the above verses fully describe orbital movements stemming from the force of gravity. Of these, the word "khunnas" refers to the planets' attraction towards their own centers and also their attraction towards the Sun, which is the centre of our Solar System. (Allah knows best.) The force of gravity already existed in the universe-although it was only possible to reveal this attractive force with mathematical formulae with Sir Isaac Newton, who lived in the 17th and 18th centuries. The word "aljawari" in the following verse emphasizes the orbital movements that arise as a result of the centrifugal force that opposes this attractive one. There is no doubt that the use of the word "aljawari" together with "khunnas" (attraction towards the centre, shrinkage) and "kunnas" (path, entering the nest, the home of a body in motion) indicates an important scientific truth that nobody could have known about 1,400 years ago. (Allah knows best.) Moreover, these verses, one of the subjects sworn on in the Quran, are another indication of the importance of the subject.

In the following verse in Quran Allah tells us about the orbits in the sky:

سُوۡرَةُ الذّاریَات
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَٱلسَّمَآءِ ذَاتِ ٱلۡحُبُكِ (٧)

Adh-Dhariyat 51:7
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

By the heaven full of paths, (7)

اور آسمان کی قسم جس میں رستے ہیں (۷)

In the following verse in Quran Allah tells us that we need power to over come the force of gravity.

سُوۡرَةُ الرَّحمٰن
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

(٣٢) يَـٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ إِنِ ٱسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ أَن تَنفُذُواْ مِنۡ أَقۡطَارِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنفُذُواْ‌ۚ لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلۡطَـٰنٍ۬ (٣٣)

Ar-Rahman 55:33
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

O company of jinn and men, if ye have power to penetrate (all) regions of the heavens and the earth, then penetrate (them)! Ye will never penetrate them save with (Our) sanction. (33)

سورة الرَّحمٰن
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اے گروہِ جن وانس اگر تمہیں قدرت ہو کہ آسمان اور زمین کے کناروں سے نکل جاؤ تو نکل جاؤ۔ اور زور کے سوا تم نکل سکنے ہی کے نہیں (۳۳)

 

Our entire Solar System is flying through space, orbiting the center of the galaxy at the incredible speed of over 900,000 km/hr (560,000 miles/hr).  So, even while you think you are standing still on Earth, you are moving at very high speeds.  It’s a good thing we have Earth’s gravity holding onto us.  In fact, all the stars you see in the sky are orbiting the Milky Way at similar speeds, like a high-speed merry-go-round in space.

 

 

ORBITS AND THE ROTATING UNIVERSE

سُوۡرَةُ الذّاریَات
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَٱلسَّمَآءِ ذَاتِ ٱلۡحُبُكِ (٧)

وَٱلسَّمَآءَ بَنَيۡنَـٰهَا بِأَيۡيْدٍ۬ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ (٤٧) وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ فَرَشۡنَـٰهَا فَنِعۡمَ ٱلۡمَـٰهِدُونَ (٤٨)

 

 

Adh-Dhariyat 51: 7, 47-48
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

By the heaven full of paths, (7) 

We have built the heaven with might, and We it is Who make the vast extent (thereof). (47) And the earth have We laid out, how gracious is the Spreader (thereof)! (48)

 

 

سورة الذّاریَات
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

اور آسمان کی قسم جس میں رستے ہیں (۷)

اور آسمانوں کو ہم ہی نے ہاتھوں سے بنایا اور ہم کو سب مقدور ہے (۴۷) اور زمین کو ہم ہی نے بچھایا تو (دیکھو) ہم کیا خوب بچھانے والے ہیں (۴۸)

 

One of the most important reasons for the great equilibrium in the universe is the fact that celestial bodies follow specific paths. Stars, planets and satellites all rotate around their own axes and also rotate together with the system of which they are a part. The universe functions within a finely-tuned order, just like the wheels in a factory or clock.

There are more than 500 billion galaxies in the universe and each  galaxy contains billions of stars in average. Furthermore, each big galaxy contains more than a trillion stars.

Find more about universe here

Many of these stars have planets and many of those planets have satellites or moons. All these celestial bodies follow the most finely calculated paths and orbits. For millions of years, each one has been moving in its own path in flawless harmony with all the others. In addition to these, there are also many comets moving along in their own pre-determined paths.

In addition, the paths in the universe is not restricted to a few celestial bodies. The Solar System and even other galaxies also exhibit considerable motion around other centers. Every year, Earth, and the Solar System with it, move some 500 million km from where they were the previous year. It has been calculated that even the slightest deviation from celestial bodies' paths could have drastic consequences which might spell the end of the entire system. For example, the consequences of the earth's deviating from its course by a mere 3 mm have been described in one source as follows:

While rotating around the sun, the earth follows such an orbit that, every 18 miles; it only deviates 2.8 millimeters from a direct course. The orbit followed by the earth never changes, because even a deviation of 3 millimeters would cause catastrophic disasters: If the deviation were 2.5 mm instead of 2.8 mm, then the orbit would be very large, and all of us would freeze. If the deviation were 3.1 mm, we would be scorched to death.
Bilim ve Teknik (Journal of Science and Technology), July 1983.

Another characteristic of heavenly bodies is that they also rotate around their own axes. The verse which reads

سُوۡرَةُ الطّارق
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وَٱلسَّمَآءِ ذَاتِ ٱلرَّجۡعِ (١١)

"[I swear] by Heaven with its cyclical systems,"

Quran, 86:11 above indicates this truth. Naturally, at the time when the Quran was revealed, people had no telescopes with which to study bodies millions of kilometers away in space, advanced observation technology or our modern knowledge of physics and astronomy. It was therefore impossible to establish that space had "its oscillating orbits," (Quran, 51:7) as described in the verse. The Quran however, revealed at that time, provided clear information concerning that fact. This is proof that this book is indeed Allah's Word.

 


Like many other comets in the universe, Halley's comet, seen above, also moves in a planned orbit. It has a specific orbit and it moves in this orbit in a perfect harmony with other celestial bodies.

All celestial bodies—including planets, satellites of these planets, stars and even galaxies—have their own orbits that have been determined with very delicate computations. The One Who established this perfect order and maintains it is Allah, Who created the entire universe.

 

11 Stars, Sun & Moon

سُوۡرَةُ یُوسُف
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

إِذۡ قَالَ يُوسُفُ لِأَبِيهِ يَـٰٓأَبَتِ إِنِّى رَأَيۡتُ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ كَوۡكَبً۬ا وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ رَأَيۡتُہُمۡ لِى سَـٰجِدِينَ (٤)

 

Yusuf
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

When Joseph said unto his father: O my father! Lo! I saw in a dream eleven planets and the sun and the moon, I saw them prostrating themselves unto me. (4)

سورة یُوسُف
شروع الله کے نام سے جو بڑا مہربان نہایت رحم والا ہے

جب یوسف نے اپنے والد سے کہا کہ ابا میں نے (خواب میں) گیارہ ستاروں اور سورج اور چاند کو دیکھا ہے۔ دیکھتا (کیا) ہوں کہ وہ مجھے سجدہ کر رہے ہیں (۴)

 

It was just a dream by a prophet of God

Can you count 11 Stars, one Earth’s Moon and one Sun, at this image from NASA